The Citadel (military academy) has a wide range of history dating back to the 19th century to today.
It was organized by the state of South Carolina in 1842, the first graduates graduated Nov. 20 1846. There were six grads at the time. The history of the Citadel dates before 1842 with regard to Revolutionary War time and before the Civil War. As for the Civil War many graduates joined the confederate army.
There is a great summary of the history of the Citadel on the school's website
Here's an excerpt from the 1842 board concerning the mission of the school. "The Board have aimed at a system of education at once scientific and practical, and which, if their original design is carried out, will eminently qualify the Cadets there taught, for almost any station or condition of life."