This information is taken from "The Family Medical Guide" ©1871
EPISTAXIS, OR BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE.
Haemorrhage from the nose is often troublesome, and sometimes dangerous, being increased to an alarming extent by persons holding the head down, and thus causing a greater determination of blood to the part. In many instances I have found patients lying in bed, with their heads hanging over a basin seated on the floor, literally wasting their life's blood.
Treatment.—Persons taken with bleeding from the nose should stand erect, have a towel wet with cold water tied around their heads, and a piece of ice or cold steel applied to the nape of their necks. The object in making them stand erect is twofold, it lessens the flow of blood to the head, and it causes faintness, which makes the bleeding cease.
Should these means not be sufficient to stop the loss of blood, the nostrils should be plugged with a pledget of soft calico or surgeon's lint, about an inch long, and thick enough to fill the nostril. This pledget, before it is introduced, should be soaked in a saturated solution of alum ; and if the case be severe, and the loss of blood considerable, it may be necessary to allow the plugs to remain in the nostrils for three days, to prevent a relapse.
Persons who are prone to haemorrhage from the nose should live abstemiously, avoiding all alcoholic drinks, also rich food, and suppers. They should also eschew violent exercise, and be careful to keep the head cool and the feet warm.