Wednesday, October 26, 2016

Nails from Scientific American

Below is an article on cut nails, in other words the nail industry in America. The initial invention was built in 1790 the patent was granted 1795 to Jacob Perkins but changes as well as a valuable industry was created in the United States.

Take from Scientific American Volume 10 ©1864

Wilkinsons and Others.
Among tbe appliances which have multiplied a thousand fold the power of man in molding the substances of nature into forms adapted to the gratification of his wants, there are few that rank higher in importance than the humble little instrument which is named at the head of this article. In numbers, nails far surpass any other thing which is employed in any of the arts, and the part that they play in the construction of our dwellings, ships, furniture and other fabrics is so great that, if they were annihilated, the whole order and movement of life would be changed.

In the old plan of making nails by hand, the end of the nail rod was heated, hammered down on an anvil into the required form, pointed, cut off and headed. In the neighborhood of Manchester alone, 60,000 persons were employed in this occupation, and great numbers in all other parts of the civilized world. By the present plan of cutting the nails, one steam engine drives several machines, and each machine makes a hundred nails per minute; the workman having nothing to do but to lay on the plates, and to put the finished nails into the kegs.

The saving of labor is also very great to those who use the nails. With the wrought nail it was necessary to bore a hole in most kinds of wood before the nail was driven; but the cut nail is so formed that it can be driven into the solid wood without danger ol splitting. Probably five or ten cut nails are driven in the same time as one wrought nail. The cut nail, too, from two of its sides being parallel, and from the roughness of its edge, retains its hold more firmly in the wood.

The machinery for making cut nails Is wholly of American invention, and is the result of a series of efforts by several different Inventors. About the time of the close of the Revolutionary war, two brothers of the name of Wilkinson, who had Iron-works in Cumberland, R. I., cut a lot of nails from some old barrel hoops—" Spanish hoops," as they were called; and these are supposed to have been the first cut nails ever made. The first patent for a nail-cutting machine was granted on the 23rd of March, 1791, to Josiah G. Person, of New York, and from that time to 1817,more than 100 patents were Issued. In 1810, Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury, made an elaborate report on this subject, and he estimated that a million of dollars had then been expended in bringing nailmaking machinery to perfection. The machines arc now models of simplicity and effectiveness, and they release a vast number of hands to be employed in the production of wealth in other forms.


Some may be wondering why I take up so much time with food and recipes. There are several reasons, refrigeration was non existent for most of the 19th century, Food preparation was also different, and yet we find some of the recipes are very similar to ones we use today. Preparing for the winter wasn't having so much money in hand to go to the grocery store once a week. As a fiction writer, I'm always looking for unique tidbits that help the reader be sent back to that time period. With that in mind, here is a post about Apples.

This is taken from "A cyclopaedia of several thousand practical reciepts:" ©1846

APPLE. The apple is a wholesome and pleasant fruit when perfectly ripe, and may be eaten either raw, roasted, or boiled. The more aromatic and flavored varieties are well adapted for dessert fruit, and are especially useful to persons of a full or confined habit of body.

APPLE-FOOL. Put the peeled and cored fruit into a jar, with moist sugar to render it palatable, and a very little cider or perry ; place the jar in a saucepan of water over the fire, and continue tho heat until the apples become quite soft, then pulp them through a colander, and add a sufficient quantity of milk, a little cream, und sugar to complete the sweetening. Mix well.

APPLES A LA CREMONA. Prep. Cut the best cooking apples into small squares, until you have about 1 1/2 lb., strew over them 1 lb. of good moist sugar and several long strips of lemonpeel, then cover them up close in a bowl. Next day put the apples, piece by piece, into a small stewpan, with 3 or 4 tablespoonfuls of cider or perry, and simmer gently until they become clear : then take them out, and when cold build a wall round a small dish with the square pieces, place the strips of lemon-peel on the top, and pour the sirup into the middle.

APPLES, DRIED. Syn. Baked Apples. Prep. Place any quantity of apples in a cool oven, 6 or 7 times in succession, flattening them each time by gentle pressure, gradually applied, as soon as they are soft enough to bear it; then take them out, and as soon as cold put them on clean dishes or glass plates. The sour or tart variety of apples is the best for baking.

APPLES And PEARS, PRESERVATION OF. One of the best ways to preserve valuable fruit of this description, is to wrap each in a piece of clean dry paper, and to fill small wide-mouthed jars or honey-pots therewith, and to pack them in the following manner, in a dry and very cold place, (as a cellar,) but where the frost cannot reach them. The pots, of the shape of fig. 1, are placed in rows one in the other, as in fig. 2, and the space (a) between the two pots filled up with plaster of Paris made into a paste with water; the joint is thus rendered air-tight, and the fruit will i keep good for a long time. The mouth of the top jar should be covered with a slate.

Remarks. The fruit should not be too ripe for the purpose of being preserved; and the later sort is the best. The jars may be taken one at a time from the store-room, us wanted, and the fruit exposed for a week or ten days in a warm dry room before being eaten, which will much improve the flavor. Another plan, which is a modification of the above, is to place alternate layers of bran or clean dry sand and apples, either naked or wrapped in paper, in jars, until they are full, then to shake them well to settle the bran between the fruit, and to add more if required; they are then packed away as before described.

II. Fruit is kept in the large way for the London market by placing in a cool situation, first a layer of straw or paper, then a layer of apples, next a layer of straw, and so on alternately, to the bright of 20 to 25 inches, which cannot be well exceeded, as the weight of the superincumbent fruit would be apt to crush or injure the lower layers. This plan is frequently modified by placing alternate layers of fruit and paper in baskets or hampers, and covering them well over before placing them in the fruit-room. The baskets may then be piled one over the other without injury to the fruit.

Remarks. Apples or other fruit intended for preserving in the above way should never be laid in heaps or allowed to touch each other, as they thereby acquire a bad flavor. They should be gathered in dry weather and immediately carried In the fruit-room, when they should be laid, if not singly, at least thinly, on the floor or shelves, on paper, and packed away as soon as possible. The use of brown paper is inadmissible, as it conveys its peculiar flavor to the fruit. Thick white brown paper is the cheapest and the best.

III. (American Method) The apples or pears, after being peeled, are cut into eighths, the cores extracted, and then dried in the sun or in a kiln or oven until they are quite hard. Remarks. In this way fruit is kept in the United States for two or three years.
For use, wash the fruit in water, then pour boiling water on it; let it stand for a few minutes, and use it as fresh fruit. The water it has soaked in is an excellent substitute for fresh juice.

APPLE SUGAR. Prep. Express the juice, and add chalk until the whole of the acid is saturated ; pour off the clear liquor; then clarify by boiling in a clean pan with some white of egg; skim off" the dirt; and lastly evaporate by a gentle heat to a proper consistence. Remarks. 1 cwt of apples yield about 84 lbs. of juice and 12 lbs. of crude sugar.


This is taken from "The Family Medical Guide" ©1871

This delicate organ is subject to many forms of disease, both internal and external.
is the most frequent of these. It is a small boil that forms on the edge of the eyelid, and has been called hordeolum, because it is about the size of a barleycorn.
Like other boils it denotes a deranged state of the blood, and is often annoying to children of a scrofulous tendency, and to those who have been injured by improper food or exposure to cold.
Treatment.—These boils should be encouraged to suppurate by fomenting them constantly with folded linen moistened with warm water, or by a light bread-and-water poultice, and as soon as matter forms, it should be allowed to escape by puncturing with a needle or lancet.
The child's health should be attended to, and its digestive organs improved, by giving it five to ten drops of the solution of the perchloride of iron in a wineglassful of water after breakfast and dinner, to be taken through a glass tube ; or, if preferred, a teaspoonful of cod-liver oil after food twice a day, the bowels being regulated by one grain of aloes and five of Epsom salts, given in a little syrup at night, when required.
The child's food should be light and easily digested, and it should be warmly clothed, to prevent chills.

Origin of Names of Month

From Houghtaling's Handbook of Useful Information ©1887

January - The Roman Janus presided over the beginning of everything; hence the first month of the year was called after him.

February - The Roman festival Februs was held on the 15th day of this month, in honor of Lupercus, the god of fertility.

March - Names from the Roman god of war, Mars.

April - Latin Aprillis, probably derived from asperire, to open; because spring generally begins and the buds open in this month.

May - Latin Maius, probably derived from Maia, a feminine divinity worshiped at Rome on the first day of this month.

June - Juno, a Roman divinity worshiped as the Queen of Heaven.

July - (Julius). - Julius Caesar was born in this month.

August - Named by the Emperor Augustus Caesar, B.C.30, after himself, as he regarded it a lucky month, being that in which he had gained several victories.

September (septem, or 7) - Septemeber was the seventh month in the old Roman calendar.

October (octo) - Eighth month of the old Roman year.

November (novem, or 9) - November was the ninth month in the old Roman calendar

December (decem, or 10) December was the tenth month of the early Roman year. About the 21st of this month the sun-enters the Tropic of Capricorn, and forms the winter solstice.

Tuesday, October 25, 2016

How to Rent a Farm

From Houghtaling's Handbook of Useful Information ©1887

In the rental of property, the greater risk is always on the landlord's side. He is putting his property into the possession and care of another, and that other is not unfrequently a person of doubtful utility. These rules and cautions may well be observed.

1. Trust to no verbal lease. Let it be in writing, signed and sealed. Its stipulations then become commands and can be enforced. Let it be signed in duplicate, so that each party may have an original.

2. Insert such covenants as to repairs, manner of use and in restraint of waste as the circumstances call for. As to particular stipulations, examin leases drawn by those who have had long experience in renting farms, and adopt such as meet your case.

3. There should be covenants asainst assigning and underletting.

4. If the tenant is of doubtful responsibility, make the rent payable in installments. A covenant that the crops shall remain the lessor's till the lessee's contracts with him have been fulfilled, is valid against the lessee's creditors. In the ordinary case of renting farms on shares, the courts will treat the crops as the joint property of lord and tenant, and thus protect the former's rights.

5. Every lease should contain stipulations for forfeiture and re-entry in case of non-payment of breach of any covenants.

6. To prevent a tenant's committing waste, the courts will grant an injunction.

7. Above all be careful in selecting your tenant. There is more in the man than there is in the bond.

Galveston 1856

Below is an excerpt from the "Incidents of Western Travels" by Rev. George Pierce ©1857 These letters were his reflections on his travels from GA to Nashville, to Oklahoma, to Arkansas, to Texas and back to GA.

Galveston, the " city of cottages," is a charming place. Open to the winds on every side, with wide streets and sandy soil, and a soft and balmy climate, it is eligibly located for a great and nourishing mart. Orange and lemon trees are found in almost every garden. They grow luxuriantly, and were laden with fruit when I was there in December last. The oleander is the common ornamental shrub in the town. It flourishes even along the sidewalks. The plantain, too, with its clustering fruit, is successfully cultivated. What the temperature may be in summer, I know not; but a visitor in winter would conclude that the good people had the productions of the tropics, without the accompanying fervor of a tropical climate. It is wellnigh impossible to conceive of a finer beach than the one around Galveston. An evening ride on these surf-beaten sands is a delightful recreation. The beautiful and the sublime, nature and art, the works of God and the inventions of men, combine in panoramic order. The island, with its human habitations; the Gulf, with its ever-heaving waters; the steamship, bannered with smoke, proudly defying wind and wave; the sea-birds, with tireless wing fanning the air, or descending to ride upon the billows ; the merry voices of the gay and the glad, as they gather shells upon the shore, mingling with the everlasting roar of the tide in its ebb and its flow, constitute a scene where one may well pause to think and feel, to admire and adore.

Galveston cannot be a sickly place, unless it be by the criminal.carelessness of the city authorities, or the bad habits of the people. Yellow-fever certainly cannot originate there, and if it prevail at all, it must be by importation. When Texas shall count her citizens by the million, and communication with the interior by railroads shall be opened, this city on the Gulf of Mexico will become an emporium of wealth and commerce.

Coffee on the Trail

Below is an impression about Coffee taken from the "Incidents of Western Travels," letters written by George Pierce a Methodist Minister on a trip out to the Indian Mission in Oklahoma in 1856 and published in 1857. I'm supplying the context for you to enjoy his comments about coffee.

A little before dark we came to an Indian cabin, and by signs and gestures made known our wish to tarry for the night. By signs and gestures we were made to understand that we could stay. We were left, of course, to wait upon ourselves; so we stripped our horses and led them to water; and when we returned, our host had brought to the lot a turn of corn and fodder, and as he let his own horses out, we put ours in and fed them to our hearts' content. Now we marched to the house t* see about our own prospects for food and rest. There was but one room, but this was neat and comfortable, save that there was about it an undefinable odor, any thing but pleasant. It is common, I learned, to Indian habitations. The man, his wife and children, were well clad, and were attentive and polite according to their notions. N"ot a word of English could we get from any of the household. They could speak it, for they understood us very well in much of our talk: that was very obvious. My good friend, McAlister, undertook to secure us a good supper by giving special directions, more particularly about the coffee—with me, when good, a favorite article. But, alas ! he succeeded better with every thing else than with this necessary beverage. By the way—pardon a little digression on this interesting theme—bad coffee is one of the afflictions of the land, and it is one of the miseries of travel. We find it everywhere—in taverns and private houses—among the rich and the poor. Often, when every thing else is clean and well prepared, the coffee is execrable stuff. Weak, or black, or unsettled, it is enough to make a well man sick. Why is this ? It is not stinginess, for there is often enough of the raw material, if it had been boiled and cleared. Sometimes, it is true, a man has to drink a good deal of wate» to get a little coffee ; but, generally, the difficulty is that the fluid is.muddy, the grounds all afloat; and then "the cup cheers" not, but sadly offends sight, smell, and taste. The country needs a reform. It is more necessary to the welfare of the people than some other things that agitate the nation. In these days of Womens' Rights I will not invade their province by pretending to give a recipe. I will only say, there must be good grains, well parched—not burnt—well boiled, and well settled; and then, as the cookery-books say, cream (not milk) and siigar "according to taste." A lady of my acquaintance says it takes a tablespoonful of coffee to every cup; a little more would not hurt to make the article decently good. I wish the people—Indians and all—would try her proportions.

Green Corn Pudding

From the Cooking for Profit cookbook ©1893

1027—Green Corn Pudding.
Shaved cooked corn off the cob, or use canned corn pounded to a halfpaste. To a quart add one cup milk, i half a cup butter and four eggs and salt i and white pepper to season. Bake in a pudding pan; serve as a vegetable entree in flat dishes. This can be made much richer if wanted so, with more mUk and yolks of eggs and is a very popular dish.

Monday, October 24, 2016

Chicken Pox

From the family medial guide:©1871 a description and treatment for the disease.

This is another eruptive fever, which is also infectious, but of a very mild character. Like the last-mentioned fevers, it attacks persons once only during life, and is a disease of youth.

The premonitory symptoms are very slight, the eruption being preceded by little fever or derangement of the general health. Children may be less disposed to play than usual, but their appetite is scarcely impaired, nor do they complain of pain or suffering; while youths at school or public offices are first made aware of something being amiss with the constitution, by a crop of small pustules appearing on the shoulders and chest.

This eruption is sometimes mistaken for modified small-pox, with which it has no affinity; nor does the one give any protection against an attack of the other. The preference of locality in each is also well marked.
Small-pox commences on the forehead and the face, which it farrows badly.

Chicken-pox, on the contrary, spares the face, and begins on the shoulder and chest; but it appears abundantly on the hairy scalp. It affects also the mucous membrane of the mouth, causing pustules on the palate and throat.

The vesicles formed by this disease do not suppurate, as in smallpox. They soon dry up, and in about a week exfoliation takes place, and the eruption goes off without leaving any trace of its former presence.

The most distinctive test is, however, obtained by inoculation. The fluid taken from the vesicle of modified small-pox readily communicates the disease to another person inoculated with it; but chicken-pox cannot be propagated in this way.

Treatment.—This disease requires little medicine. The general rule of confinement to bed in fever cannot be dispensed with; nor should we neglect to unload the liver and bowels. A youth should get half a grain of podophylline and ten grains of Epsom salts, in syrup, at night, the bowels being regulated afterwards by two grains of aloes and ten of Epsom salts, taken at night, as required. Half of these doses would be sufficient for a child of six years.

The food should be rice, arrowroot, or maizena, boiled in water and made palatable with milk; and the drink should be toast-, barley-, or rice-water, with ten grains of cream of tartar given in each drink.

After the fourth day chicken broth or beef- or mutton-tea, with stale bread, may be given once a day for children; but while confined to bed, children do not require animal food in any form, and solid animal food is injurious, until they can take exercise with it.

In this and every other cutaneous disease exposure to cold or chills should be avoided, and sufficient clothing ought to be worn for some time after recovery.

Over Worked Women Advertisement Medicine from the past

Below is a copy of an advertisement that was in "The Current" June 1887

Over Worked Women
For "worn-out," "run-down," debilitated school teachers, milliners, seamstresses, housekeepers, and over-worked women generally, Dr. Pierce's Favorite Prescription is the best of all restorative tonics. It is not a "Cure-all," but admirably fulfills a singleness of purpose, being a most potent Specific for all those Chronic Weaknesses and Diseases peculiar to women. It is a powerful, general as well as uterine, tonic and nervine, and imparts vigor and strength to the whole system. It promptly cures weakness of stomach, indigestion, bloating, weak back, nervous prostration, debility and sleeplessness, in either sex. Favorite Prescription is sold by druggists under our positive guarantee. See wrapper around the bottle.
Price $1.00, or six bottles for $5.00
A large treatise on Diseases of Women, profusely illustrated with color plates and numerous wood-cuts, sent for 10 cents in stamps. Address. World's Dispensary Medical Association, 663 Main Street, Buffalo, N.Y.
Sick Headache, Bilious Headache and Constipation, promptly cured by Dr. Pierce's Pellets. 25 cents a vial, by druggists.

The medicine had a huge amount of opium in it. He wrote a medical reference book "The people's Common Sense Medical Advisor." but it primarily promoted his products. You can go here to learn a little more about Dr. Pierce.

Scarlet Fever

From the The family medical guide: ©1871 a description and treatment for the disease.

This is another very infectious fever, causing an eruption on the skin, and ulcers in the throat.
Some wish to limit the term scarlatina to the severe forms of the disease, but as this and scarlet fever are generally considered synonymous, we shall take them as being so.

This disease, like measles, occurs generally only once during life, but there are exceptions to this rule, and it is noticed that second attacks are mild.

The poison of scarlatina is exceedingly virulent, and it is impossible to say at what stage it may cease to be contagious. An instance occurred in the circle of my own acquaintance, in which the trunk of a medical student who died in Edinburgh, which contained part of his dress that had never been worn by him during his fever, communicated scarlatina to a family in Ireland, although the clothes were freely exposed to the open air before they were worn, and might be supposed to have been purified by the sea voyage.

A high temperature, I believe, is the only certain means of destroying the contagion that lurks in apparel of any kind, especially of the woollen fabric. It should be steamed in an oven heated to 220° Fahr. for two hours, and this does not singe or injure the material.

Scarlatina appears in three forms: the first, or mildest, affecting the skin with slight rash, and merely a blush on the fauces, or throat; the second, more severe, affecting the skin, and with slight ulcers in the throat; and the third, called malignant, in which the throat is deeply ulcerated.

The most suddenly fatal cases under my care were those in which the disease commenced with inflammation of the membranes of the brain, and violent delirium, in which the dose of the poison seemed to be so great that the constitution was overpowered, and could not rally.

The first symptoms of the disease are a sensation of chilliness, amounting in some cases to a rigor or shivering, accompanied with nausea, irritability of temper, and depression of spirits.

The eruption on the forehead and face appears earlier than in measles—about the second day ; and it is distinguished from measles by being less florid in colour.

In scarlet fever, also, the eyes are not weak, nor have we the hoarse cough as in measles, while the throat is always more or less affected, the tonsils being generally ulcerated at an early period.

Treatment.—In the treatment of this and every other fever, the first thing to be done is to put the patient to bed, for the reasons given in the article on measles. And as the cuticle exfoliates very largely in this fever, the patient should remain in bed until the cuticle is tolerably restored, which will be two weeks after the eruption disappears from the surface.
Those who are exposed to changes of temperature earlier than that are always subject to anasarca (dropsy of the cellular membrane), or else to fatal dropsy of the chest.

Most of the unfavourable recoveries in my practice were from cases so mild that parents could not be persuaded to confine their children to bed a sufficient length of time to allow the cuticle to grow again, or the poison of the fever to be perfectly eliminated from the constitution. And to the same cause, together with the use of solid animal food before the stomach is in a fit state to receive it, may be attributed the relapses and bad consequences resulting from fevers.

In mild attacks, having given half a grain of podophylline with ten grains of Epsom salts, to carry off the bile, the bowels should be regulated afterwards with two grains of aloes and ten of salts given in treacle, at night, when required. The patient should be confiued to bed in a well-aired room, with covering sufficient to retain warmth ; and get toast-, barley-, or rice-water, or rennet whey, with five grains of nitre, and half a teaspoonful of the acetate of ammonia, in such drink, every three hours, alternately, if the patient be below ten years; and ten grains of nitre, and one teaspoonful of the acetate of ammonia, every three hours, alternately, if above ten years of age.

In severe cases, when the throat is ulcerated, in addition to the nitre and ammonia, the carbonate of which is preferable, being given in two- to five-grain doses, sufficiently diluted, the ulcers in the throat should be brushed with a solution of nitrate of silver, ten grains to the ounce of water, applied by a large camel's-hair pencil night and morning; and if the salivary glands below the jaw become enlarged and painful, they should be covered with a plaster of iodideof-lead ointment (two drachms of the iodide to the ounce of rendered suet), spread on soft leather, and supported by a narrow ribbon or tape over the head.
Toast-, barley-, or rice-water, or rennet whey, is sufficient muris-hment for the first three or four days; but after that the patient requires to be supported with chicken broth, beef- or mutton-tea, given once or twice a day, the former drink being continued, together with the nitre and ammonia, which latter acts as an antidote to the poison of scarlatina.

When the throat is much affected the fever is always higher, and determination to the brain is apt to supervene. As soon as heat of head or delirium indicates this, the hair should at once be shaved off entirely. Any attempt to retain it is futile, as it must fall after the fever, and its presence imperils life.

After being shaved the head should be elevated a little, and kept constantly cool by rags wet with cold water often renewed, or by ice in a bladder or oiled silk. The feet should be carefully attended to, and kept warm by a footpan of hot water rolled in flannel; and care must be taken that the bladder and bowels be emptied at proper intervals—the bladder every six hours, and the bowels once in twenty-four hours. Sponging the patient frequently with tepid water is very serviceable.

In the malignant form, when the throat is deeply ulcerated, and of a livid hue, with little appearance of eruption on the skin, the solution of the nitrate of silver should be stronger (thirty grains to the ounce of water), to be applied by a camel's-hair brush to the throat, night and morning; and before applying the caustic the discharge on the ulcers and throat should be carefully cleaned off by a piece of sponge or soft rag.

In severe cases, when the brain suffers, some apply leeches, others take blood from the arm, and a few blister. From two to six leeches applied behind or below the ears, on each side, relieve the head symptoms, and are serviceable ; but the lancet and blisters I would dissuade, having never been convinced of their benefit.

The prostration of strength in this form of the disease is always alarming, and should be counteracted by nourishing drinks or fluid food, as beef-tea, mutton-tea, chicken well bruised and boiled in vacuo, in a bottle without water and well corked; and Liebig's essence of meat. One of these should be given every three hours; with five grains of the carbonate of ammonia for an adult, and two grains for a child.

Stimulants, as wine and brandy, are preferred by many; but they are fur inferior to the ammonia, which has a specific effect in counteracting the poison of this fever.

The amount of poison in the system seems, however, so great in many cases that it must prove fatal in despite of remedies; and none but the best constitutions can recover from the malignant form of this fever, which often destroys life on the third or fourth day.

The longer the patient holds out after that, our hopes of recovery increase; and after the ninth day we may calculate on convalescence.

The consequences of this fever are always to be dreaded, and too much care cannot be taken.

The inflammation often extends from the throat to the ear by the internal passage behind the tonsils, and causes inflammation of the drum of the ear, which is destroyed, and with it the power of hearing.

An ichorous discharge from the nostrils also irritates the upper lip, and the eyelids suffer from discharge from the eyes, while the lips and mucous membrane of the mouth are often excoriated. To improve these a saturated solution of borax (as much as water will dissolve) applied by a camel's-hair brush to the excoriated parts, and injected into the ear by a small syringe, is efficient.

Tonics in some form are always necessary for patients recovering from scarlatina. For children, the solution of the perchloride of iron (five drops in a wineglassful of sugar and water), after breakfast and dinner, generally suits well; and ten or twenty drops would be the dose for adults with whom quinine disagrees. But for the latter quinine is preferable unless it gives headache, which is seldom produced by half-grain doses, thrice a day after food.

The food should be light and easily digested, commencing with roast pullet or white fish; then the lean of good beef or mutton, with stale bread or a mealy potato ; care being taken not to overload the stomach, than which nothing is more certain to retard recovery.

As sopn as the cuticle is restored, and the patient has got new boots and gloves (for the old scarf-skin is frequently cast off like a slipper or old glove), if the weather be fine and the strength sufficient, to drive out in the open air is salutary; but an attempt to walk must not be made too hastily.

A shower bath, tepid at first and cooled down gradually, is the best means of preparing the patient for exposure to the open air and for change, which is very desirable ; the sea coast being preferable, if the season be suitable. But sea-bathing should not be commenced sooner than a month after the eruption disappears. Up to that period the shower bath or sponging, followed by friction, is much safer, and equally beneficial.

Some never recover perfectly after a severe attack of any fever; while others, formerly delicate, become stout, and seem to get a new constitution; their nervous irritability, which formerly made them too susceptible of both internal and external impressions, being reduced by the poison of the fever.

To prevent the spreading of this virulent fever is very important, and should be studiously attended to.
Because belladonna, when taken into the stomach, produces, by sympathy, a rash on the skin, Hahnemann, the homoeopathist, on his principle of like curing like, proclaimed belladonna a prophylactic for this fever, or a medicine which, if taken by persons exposed to the disease, would render them proof against its contagion.

After many trials of this remedy, and much attention to its effects when given by others, I am obliged to say that I place no confidence in it for this purpose. Indeed it seems equally consistent to imagine that diseased fish or bad mushrooms, which, when eaten, produce a rash on the skin, should be a preventive for this fever.

Free ventilation in the sick apartment, perfect attention to cleanliness, and care not to inhale the breath or vapour from the patient, are the surest means of escaping contagion.

The use of Condy's Disinfecting Fluid is also highly commendable, as it destroys unpleasant perfumes arising from perspiration or otherwise ; but it should not be allowed to supersede attention to cleanliness, which must include not only frequent changes of linen, but also the immediate removal of the patient's dejections and urine, which are always offensive, and, no doubt, calculated to spread the contagion.

Quicksand from a travel journal

Below is an excerpt from Incidents of Western Travels by a Methodist Minister, George Pierce in 1856 and published in 1857. These letters are a brief account of a trip he took from Georgia to the Indian Mission (Oklahoma) to Texas then Arkansas and back to Georgia. I've found it fascinating reading. Here's a brief description of an account about quicksand.

On Monday morning, the 15th of October, we left North' Fork with Brother McAlister and Brother Ewing, for the Choctaw Agency. The latter brother was expecting to be transferred from the Arkansas Conference, and to take work among the Indians. Tahlequah was left to be supplied by him. The brethren were on horseback, and the roads being very rough, they outwent us a little. By-and-by we saw them ahead on the bank of a river. Brother McAlister dismounted, punching about in the edge of the water up and down the stream with his umbrella. "What is the matter— what do you mean ?" said I. " We are looking for a place to cross." "What, you are not afraid to plunge into this little branch! Why, it is not knee-deep !" "Ah !" said Brother McAlister, "the quicksand—the quicksand: all these streams are dangerous. Be sure you do not let your horses stop to drink, or you may be swallowed up. Once sink a little, and you are gone." Thus admonished, we drove quickly over the wide but shallow stream. Our travelling companions entertained us with several stories about these quicksands—some serious, some ludicrous. We passed them all in safety; but I will say I never saw such sand-bars and beds anywhere else.

Saturday, October 22, 2016


I've come to realize that a great deal of emphasis was put on poetry during the 19th century. My understanding is that poetry is very difficult to sell to publishers today but this didn't seem to be the case in the 19th century. Admittedly, I've never been a huge fan of poetry, in large part because I didn't understand it. However, my husband was raised hearing and reading it and when he reads a poem it does come to life for me.

All of that is to say that I find these two poems interesting. They were published in 1847 by Rev J.L. Merrick. The two poems below express his arrival to Charleston, SC and his departure.

Hail, Charleston! there you stand as when
I saw you first from ocean ;
I view your spires and domes again,
With thrilling deep emotion.

An invalid, from northern climes,
How kindly you received me ;
My grateful heart recalls the times
Your friendly hand relieved me.

A cloud upon my prospects then
With angry brow was low'ring,
That very cloud, like vernal rain,
Rich blessings on me show'rmg,

Has overpassed, and now the bow,
On its dark bosom glowing,
Betokens good the way I go,
Eternal life-seed sowing.

Farewell, dear Charleston friends, farewell!
I may no more return,
Yet e'er for you this heart will swell,
This grateful bosom burn.

When orient suns shall light my way
Through distant Moslim lands,
For you I still will fervent pray
Mid flowers or barren sands.

We'll meet each other at the throne
Where grace and joy are given ;
And when our pilgrim course is done,
We'll meet to dwell in heaven.

Office of Indian Affairs Salaries

This selection comes from Houghtaling's Handbook of Useful Information ©1887
Salaries of United States Officials
Office of Indian Affairs
Commissioner . . . . $4,000
Chief Clerk . . . . . . .$2,000
Financial Clerk . . . . $2,000
Chief of Division . . .$2,000
4 Clerks, each . . . . .$1,800
10 Clerks, each . . . .$1,000
15 Clerks, each . . . .$1,400
8 Clerks, each . . . . .$1,200
9 Clerks, each . . . . . .1,000
12 Copyists, each . . . . 900
Messenger . . . . . . . . . .840
Assist. Messenger . . . . 720

Cooking for Business Omelets Part 2

from Cooking for profit: ©1893 What I find fun about this cookbook is not only the recipes but also the comments about cost. Which is very helpful imho when working on our historical novels.

87—Plain Omelet.
Two eggs and one teaspoonful of railk. Add a pin«h of salt, beat in a bowl enough to thoroughly mix but not make il too light, as if the omelet rises like a souffle it will go down agaiu, so much the worse.
Pour into a small frying pan, or omelet pan, in which is one Tablespoonful of the clear part of melted butter, and fry like fried eggs But when partly set run a knife point around to loosen it and begin to shake the omelet over to the further side of the pan until the thin further edge forced upward falls bick into the omele'.. When (he under side has a good color, and the middle is nearly set, roll the brown side uppermost, with a knife to help, and elide the omelet on to a hot dish. Serve immediately while it is light and soft.

88—Omelet with Parsley.
Mix a tablespoouful of minced parsley with the omelet mixture while beating it op. Make as directed in the preceding article.

89—Omelet with Onions and Parsley.
Mince two tablespoonfuls of onion and fry it in a little lard in a frying-pan with a plate inverted upon it. In five minutes take up the minced onion without grease and add it to the omelet mixture made ready with parsley in it; stir up and fry as directed in plain omelet.

90—Omelet With Ham.
Have ready on the table some grated or minced lean ham in a dish. Four a plain omelet of two eggs into the fryingpan and strew over the surface about a tablespoonful of the grated ham.

91-Omelet with Cheese.
Make in the same manner aa ham •>melet, with grated cheese instead of ham.

92—Omelet with Tomatoes.
Stew tomatoes down nearly dry, season with butter, pepper and salt. Inclose a spoonful in the middle of an omelet according to the preceeding examples.

Cost of omelets. Omelets are kept off the bill of fare more on account of the time and attention required to cook them properly than because of their cost whkh is only from 1/2c to Ic more than the eggs alone would be. This is speaking of hotel and family orders where the added seasoning is but about a tablespoonful, and not of omelets with asparagus, points or other rarities. Eggs vary in price from G cents per dozen in country places to 6O cents in the cities at midwinter.