Thursday, July 24, 2014

Salad Anyone

We eat a lot of salad in my house and now that it is summer we seem to eat even more. Below is an excerpt from "Salad and Salad Making" ©1884. There are a ton or recipes from the book but I especially enjoy the opening information. I've included the breakdown of the various types of salad dressings as well. Enjoy!

CLASSIFICATION OF SALADS.
Salad has a different significance to-day from what it once had. The original, contracted definition of the word has broadened and expanded, with the advance of modern ideas, until salads are no longer restricted to "uncooked herbs dressed with salt, vinegar or spices," but include a wide range of fruits, vegetables, fish and meats, prepared and dressed in a great variety of ways—in fact, nesry everything used as food may be brought into requisition in making salads.
Bat all varieties of salads are included in five classes, viz:
1. —Fruit Salads.
2. —Vegetable Salads.
3—Fish Salads.
4. —Meat Salads.
5. —Mixed Salads.
To one or the other of these classes every imaginable kind and style of salad belongs, and all binds and styles are governed by the same general principles that underlie the art of salad making.
DIVISION OF CLASSES.
Each class of salads may, however, be appropriately divided into two kinds—simple and compound salads.
A Simple Salad contains only a single sort of frnit, vegetable, fish or meat.
A Compound Saxad contains two or more sorts of fruit, vegetables, fish or meat.
CLASSIFICATION OF SALAD DRESSING.
As a salad may consist only of one sort of fruit, vegetables, etc., so a dressing may be simply a sprinkle of salt or sugar, or a few drops of oil or vinegar. But as there are elaborate salads of various kinds, so there are elaborate dressings, capable of almost endless changes and modifications.
There are, nevertheless, but four distinct classes of salad dressing, viz:
1. —Transparent Dressing.
2. —French Dressing.
3. —Cream Dressing.
4. —Mayonnaise Dressing.
THREE IMPORTANT RULES.
To excel in salad making, as in every other branch of cookery, a close analytical study of the subject is necessary; but the best success is attainable only by a strict observance of three very important rules, viz:—
1. —The ingredients composing the salad and dressing must be suitably chosen.
2. —They must be introduced into the mixture in a certain, specific order.
3. —The method of mixing must be suited to the nature of the ingredients.
SALAD DRESSINGS.
A dressing, whether of salt, sugar, vinegar, or a combination of many things, should not be the prominent or main feature of a salad. It should be only a dressing—an adjunct, to tone down and soften too sharp an acid, or too pungent a flavor; or to render finer and more distinctive, some peculiar individuality of the fruits, vegetables, etc., composing the salad. This is the true mission of the dressing. And a salad dressing, scientifically prepared, brings out and develops the native characteristics of the various materials used, and crowns with perfectness the harmoniously compounded salad.
Class 1.
Transparent Salad Dressing.
A transparent dressing may be simply a clear syrup made of sugar and water; or, it may be a mixture of fruit juice and sugar. Or, it may be water in which herbs, vegetables, fish or meats have been cooked. It may be a sweet dressing, in which many fruit flavors and spices are mingled; or, it may be acid with vinegar or lemon, or pungent with mustard and other condiments. It may be thin as vinegar—thick as syrup or honey—or stiff as jelly. It may be colorless; or, it may be of any color, shade or tint that suits the fancy. Its only imperative requirement is, a transparent clearness. A good illustration of a transparent dressing, suitable for a fruit salad composed of bananas, pears, or any sweet fruit, is—
TRANSPARENT ORANGE DRESSING.
To the juice of three oranges and one lemon, which should make a half pint, add four ounces of sugar, one gill of sherry wine, and the white and shell of one egg. Beat all together. Heat to boiling point. Simmer live minutes. Strain. The wine may be omitted from this dressing, if desired. And, if liked, a small portion of the grated peel of both orange and lemon can be added.
JELLIED TRANSPARENT ORANGE DRESSING.
Is made by adding to the mixture before heating it, half an ounce of gelatine soaked an hour in a gill of cold water.
TRANSPARENT TOMATO DRESSING.
Thicken a pint of stewed, strained tomato, with a tablespoonfnl of arrow root mixed with cold water. Boil two minutes. Add an ounce of butter, half a teaspoonful of sugar, the same of salt, and a little pepper. This is very nice, either hot or cold, with any kind of meat salad.
JELLIED TRANSPARENT VEGETABLE DRESSING.
To one quart of boiling water slightly salted, or the same quantity of fish, chicken, or veal broth, add one medium sized carrot, one onion, half a bay leaf, a root of celery, ten cloves, twenty allspice, thirty pepper corns, and half a teaspoonful of white mustard seed. Simmer an hour, strain and let cool. To each pint of the liquor add a pint of vinegar, an ounce of gelatine soaked in cold water, and the white and shell of an egg. Heat to boiling point, simmer five minutes and strain.
, Class 2.
French Dressing.
To four teaspoonfuls of vinegaradd half a teaspoonful of salt and one eighth of a teaspoonful of pepper; mix, and pour over salad, then add olive oil to taste.
FRENCH DRESSING, WITH MUSTARD.
To half a teaspoonful of made mustard, add olive oil slowly, stirring constantly. When thick, add vinegar in like manner. And thus alternate until the requisite proportions of oil and vinegar have been added. By observing this method of mixing, a large bottle of oil can be made into a perfectly smooth dressing—with only the half teaspoonful of made mustard as a base—by the addition of a few drops of vinegar from time to time, as required to thin the mixture. Add salt and pepper to taste. The usual quantities are a teaspoonful and a half of salt, and one fifth as much pepper, to each pint of oil.
Class 3.
Cream Dressing.
To one pint of boiling cream, add two ounces of flour stirred to a smooth paste with two ounces of butter. Cook two minutes. Remove from the saucepan, and add one ounce of butter, stirring until cool and perfectly mixed, then season to taste with lemon juice, vinegar, salt, pepper, mustard, capers, minced onion, parsley, chopped pickle, etc.
SOUR CREAM DRESSING.
To one cup of sour cream add a fourth of a cup of vinegar or lemon juice. Season to taste withsalt and cayenne pepper. Use on vegetable or fish salad.
HOT CREAM DRES8ING.
Cook together, two minutes, an ounce of flour and an ounce of butter, add a pint of sweet cream and season to taste with salt and pepper. Use on boiled cabbage, cauliflower, potatoes, turnips, carrots, parsnips, beets or any vegetables.
This dressing may be varied by adding whites or yolks of eggs, minced onions, parsley, pickles, capers, vinegar or lemon juice; and may boused warm or cold according to taste.
HOT SLAW DRESSING.
Heat together to boiling point in a stew pan a gill of vinegar and an ounce of butter. Stir in an egg well beaten, and add a gill of sweet cream. Season to taste.
Another hot slaw dressing may be made in this manner: Mix together a gill of water and a gill of vinegar. Thicken with half an ounce of flour. Cook two minutes, add an ounce of butter and season to taste.
Class 4.
Mayonnaise Dressing.
This is the most popular salad dressing in use, and is made in this manner: With a small wooden spoon stir the yolk of an uncooked egg in anearthen bowl, one minute. Then, continuing the stirring in the same direction all the time add olive oil drop by drop, until the mixture becomes thick and waxy. Thin by stirring in vinegar and lemon juice, in small quantities. Add oil as before; and so alternate the oil and vinegar until the required amount of dressing is made. Season with salt, pepper, mustard, chopped olives, capers, pickles, onions, celery, parsley, cresses or whatever is desired, according to taste, and the requirements of the salad with which the dressing is to be used. By simply observing care in regard to adding oil and vinegar slowly in small quantities, a large bottle can be made into dressing, and only one egg yolk be used as a base. Butter may always be substituted for olive oil when desired, and can be used in a Mayonnaise by stirring to a cream, and gradually adding a well beaten egg. The white of an egg beaten stiff may be added to any cream or Mayonnaise dressing just before it is used. In rich oil dressings sherry wine is frequently used in equal proportions with vinegar.
MAYONNAISE DRESSING. No. 2.
Mix in a two-quart bowl—to allow room for beating—one even teaspoonful of mustard, one teaspoonful of salt, and a teaspoonful and a half of vinegar. Add the yolk of an egg, beat all well together, then add gradually half a pint of olive oil. The oil should be poured in a fine tliread-like stream, and the mixture all the while be beaten rapidly. More vinegar or lemon juice may be used if required to make it the proper consistency.
COOKED MAYONNAISE DRESSING.
Add the well beaten yolks of five eggs to five tablespoonfnls of boiling vinegar. Cook in an earthen bowl, set in a pan of boiling water, until stiff—being careful to stir clean from the sides of the bowl while cooking. Remove from the fire, add four ounces of butter, and stir until cool and perfectly mixed. When quite cold season to taste with 6alt, pepper, mustard, etc., and thin with sweet cream to the required consistency. Oil, if preferred, may be used in place of cream. If the mixture when cooked is not perfectly smooth, it should be rubbed through a hair sieve. This is an excellent and convenient salad dressing; and when properly cooked will keep, without deterioration, for several days.
SYDNEY SMITH'S SALAD DRESSING.
The hard boiled yolks of eggs were formerly much used, and are by some people still preferred for making salad dressing. Perhaps the best recipe, when they are used, is the one popularized by being reduced to rhyme by the talented and witty English clergyman after whom it was named.
Two boiled potatoes passed through kitchen sieve,

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

1877 Fashions

Below are some 1883 images of various fashions taken from periodicals at that time.

Children

Walking Suit Girl

Walking Dress
Walking Dress Front & Back

Walking Dresses & Jackets

Hair

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Switchboard Operator

Please note there are two kinds (perhaps more) of switchboard operators. The first worked for the railroad, the second, the one I'm addressing below worked for the telephone service. During the early years of the phone service, there were a lot of legal battles going on about patent problems and such. Something to note for added tension in your historical characters at the time.

Here are some tidbits about a switchboard operator and what their job entailed:

Vhen the capacity of a telephone-exchange system rises above several hundred subscribers the need is felt for labor-saving appliances, chiefly in the work that must be performed by the switchboard operator. This may be divided into several operations, namely, answering calls. calling subscribers, interconnecting subscribers, supervising such interconnections and dissolving the interconnections. However, the limited scope of this article covers only such apparatus as is required for the second or calling operation.
As a rule, the switchboard operator is apprised of a subscriber's desire for a communication by the falling of an annunciator shutter or lighting of a lamp. The signal is then responded to by the operator, either by inserting a plug, pressing a button or other means that may have been provided in the switchboard equipment. Upon learning the subscriber’s needs the operator’s next duty is to learn whether the desired correspondent’s line is free for allowing his signal-receiving apparatus to be sounded. If. on testing or by observation, it is found that the called~for subscriber's line is not already in use the operator’s next duty will be to project a signaling current over the circuit. This brings us to the operation which it is the purpose of this article to describe.
The signaling current for sending out over the line may be (as is the case in the smaller exchange systems) generated by the switchboard operator, while driving an electric generator; however, this operation consumes so much of the switchboard operator's time that it soon becomes a burdensome duty for the operator. In the smaller exchange systems the hand-driven magneto-generator can be em— ployed with good results; in the larger systems, however, where the time consumed while interconnecting the subscribers must necessarily be less, the necessity arises for providing some other means for ringing the subscribers‘ telephone bells; in other words, the electric generator must be driven by some external source of power, such as an electric, gas, water or oil motor. Whichever type of driving engine may be employed, it is essential that its speed should be fairly constant; moreover, its power should be such that even with three or four operators ringing out at the same time its speed shall not be seriously affected. Another important feature provided should be that its internal resistance should be comparatively low, depending, of course, somewhat on the size of the generator armature and field magnets.
Source: Wester Electrician ©1899

In connecting a party line. with a switchboard a great deal of trouble is often caused by the use of an improperly wound annunciator coil. It should be borne in mind that the drop magnet really bears the same relation to the line as the ringer magnets, in the various telephones, and should therefore be connected in the same way. For a series party line the switchboard drop should be wound to about the same resistance as the ringer magnets. If the resistance is made higher, as is often done in' the attempt to secure a more sensitive drop, the parties on the line will have much difficulty in talking to each other, because the drop is in series in the line; but if that line is connected with some other line, through the switchboard, this trouble will not exist, as the circuits should be so arranged as to cut out the drop upon the insertion of the plug.
Source: Electrical Engineering ©1898

Monday, July 21, 2014

The turpentine and tar business.

One of my most visited posts is on the making of turpentine. So I thought I'd add a few more tidbits about this industry.

The turpentine and tar business.
The making of turpentine and tar is the almost sole business of the thinly settled population of the pine lands. They are generally poor and indolent; yet this business allords good profits even at the present low prices, and enormous profits were made when naval stores were tuore than double their present prices. Turpentine now sells at 81.80 the barrel at Wilmington, and it has sold for upwards of $4. Mr. Lazarus told me that he had paid to a poor white man, who worked singly and unassisted in making turpentine, 81000 lbr the fruits of his labor of one year. It is understood that a good hand can attend to 9000 trees, and can secure 200 barrels of turpentine in a year.

In commencing the operation on trees untouched, a receptacle (or “box”) is cut by the axe on one side of the tree, and about six inches above the ground, which is large enough to hold a quart of the fluid turpentine which exudes from the cut sap-wood, and which flows into this hollow from the upper part and sides. The flowing of the sap begins of course in the spring. At the end of a few days, (according to the time and state of the season,) the laborer visits all his trees, collects turpentine and puts it in barrels. He then cuts from each side of the tree a shallow groove, inclining downward to the box, through the bark and a little into the wood. Into these new cuts the turpentine exudes, and flows down them into the box. The tool by which this operation is performed is called a “shave.” It is a circular piece of iron like the eye of a weeding hoe, with the lower edge sharp, and which is attached to a shaft or handle, so as to cut its groove like a gouge, but by being pulled to, instead ol'being pushed from. the operator.

Every time the box is emptied of its turpentine, the “shaving” is extended upward, and thus gradually making the tree bare of bark and ofthe outer surface of the sap-wood as high sscan be conveniently reached, or 15 feet and upwards.' This shaving rises about two feet in a year, and thus it takes about seven years to finish one side of a tree. The side edges of the bored surface are carefully kept perpendicular and straight, and not quite to embrace the balt'ofthe trunk of the tree. Next, the opposite side is “boxed,” and treated in the same way, taking care to leave a strip of an inch or two of bark on each side between the old and the newer work. Without other cause ol'decay or destruction. the trees will live and yield well until the sides or, be shaved no higher. But the spreading ot'accidental fires selgom fails to kill the tree earlier. For the entire face of the cutting being encrusted with turpentine, and the wood below being converted to solid lightwood, no trees can be more inflammable ; and the fire burns so deeply in, as to kill the strips of living bark by heat, or to weaken the trunk so much that it yields to, and is prostrated by, the next storm. The trees, or parts that escape being burnt, are finally cut up into billets, and the tar extracted from them, by burning them slowly in a close kiln, made by covering the lightwood with earth in the mode well known in every pine country.

It is only the turpentine that retains its fluidity, and is collected in the box, that is considered firstrate. The part that sticks to and hardens above has lost its most valuable part, the oil or spirits of turpentine,) by evaporation, an when scraped off, which is the last part ofthe process, is sold at half the price of the fluid turpentine. Of course the expense of land-carriage is a suificient bar to the production of so heavy and low-priced products, where the distance is considerable.

The turpentine getters are careful every spring to rake away the leaves from the foot of every tree, and to burn the collected trash when it can be done slowly and stately. But they cannot always command the progress of the fires; and from that, or other less carelhlly made fires, great havock is olien mode among the boxed trees.

Where vicinity to market, or cheapness of carriage, permits this business to be in full operation, it cannot last long, as the long leaf pines will be destroyed and will not be renewed. The other kinds of pines are not worth working for this purpose.
Source: The Farmers' Register ©1840

Friday, July 18, 2014

What an Employer is looking for...

Yesterday I tackled some information on the filing systems used during the 19th century. Today I thought these words about what an employer is looking for in a good employee written to the employee might be helpful as you choose a career for your characters.

POINT OF VIEW.
ROUND-ABOUT NOTES.
A Man's Usefulness in this world, whether in a subordinate position or otherwise, is very generally measured by his ability to adapt himself to circumstances and to be serviceable in whatever capacity he is working, whether the conditions are such as he is accustomed to or are entirely new. To put it in a rough way, his usefulness is measured by his ability to "catch on" The man who is content to seemingly perform the duties assigned him seldom excels in usefulness. On the other band, the man who actually performs all that is allotted to him. and who studies to increase his usefulness by doing certain other things that fall in his way, and which are necessary to be done by some one, even though they do not belong to him, very rapidly increases his measure of usefulness. It is hard to define the difference between a thoroughly useful helper and one who pretends to be useful and actually falls short, except only by the results of a period of trial. The one who pretends is very often so obtrusive in his methods as to came a false impression to prevail concerning his usefulness, and on the other hand, the modest young man whospends his time and strength in doing things instead of talking about them, sometimes fails of recognition because of the very quietness of his ways.

Every Business Man wants helpers who are actually useful. He wants men about him who really perform, not those who sperd their strength in talking about their performances. He requires the assistance of these who are ever alert to save bim work, ratter than the lip service of those who are perfectly .willing to neglect their duties whenever they fee the opportunity without committing an actual breach of contract, even though their shortcomings increase the cares of the principal in small things. Every business man and every manager of a department has enough of higher duties to perform to warrant every small responsibility being carried by a subordinate, and that, too, in a way to save constant watching and plodding, and yet ninety-nine out of every hundred managers, if they talk freely, will say that the things which wear them out in business are the neglected small duties of their assistants. Tbey will tell you that tbey are ever on the alert for fear something which belongs to some one else to perform will be lift undone, or else they are tired out by doing little things which their subordinates, by rights, should perform without their thought or supervision.

The Successful Business Man, and the leader in any enterprise, possesses the ability to do things, day by day, which he never did before, and to learn new trades from time to time, as made necessary by the shifting conditions by which he is surrounded, yet when it comes to the rank and file of his subordinates and assistants he will frequently encounter the assertion," I can't do that" (some new duty), "for I never learned it." Asa rule, the man who utters these words could not do so, meaning what be says, save only with a fair comprehension < f the requirements of the case in his mind. But to see the need of a thing, with the progressive man, is learning to do it. For the inefficient or unprogressive n an to see the need is, on the other hand, only an excuse for declaring that he never learned how to do it, and does not propose to try to learn now. It would be waste of space to present thoughts such as these for the consideration of the reader were it not for the facts, first, that every man is ambitious to succeed ; and, second, that in many cases those who do not succeed owe their failure very largely to standing in their own light in just such ways as above suggested. Source: The Office ©1891 (Not to be confused with the modern tv show.

Thursday, July 17, 2014

Filing Systems

Below are a couple of examples of various filing systems for different types of businesses. If your historical characters work in an office or a newspaper this information might be helpful.

HOW lNQUlRlES ARE FILED.
Mr. Haskins, in charge of the mail-order department of Wm. Wrigley, Jr., 8.: Co., Chicago, outlines this firm’s methods as follows :
“The inquiries are entered upon blue cards, containin the name, address and source; then we are able at any time to determine by this system what mediums are producing the best results, and can spend our money most advantageously. In replying to an original inquiry, we send one of our catalogues, together with an accompanying letter. All orders are entered subsequently upon this card, so that after the receipt of a letter the card system becomes the sole source of information and the letters are gradually discarded. We make it an object to have each of our customers send us the names of neighbors and friends, and names obtained from other sources than those coming from direct advertising are entered upon white cards. We arrange our cards alphabetically under States, towns and names within each town.
“ In regard to this card system, we wish to Sat that we think it is one of the. greatest things ever gotten up. We are annually saving hundreds of dollars by discarding from our lists duplicate names which are automatically detected by the card system, and which would result in the loss of catalogues, postage and time if an other method were emplo ed. We can handle one hundred thousan dollars’ worth of business with the card system with as much ease, accuracy and attention to details as we can one hundred dollars’ worth. and think we get three times the result from the same effort and same amount of correspondence and advertising that we could without the system.”

Mr. C. A. Bent, of Geo. P. Bent Piano Manufacturing Co., Chicago, has the following to say about methods and filing systems :
“ We use the card system and numeric expansive filing system for tabulating and rendering effective all information about prospective customers and inquirers. \Ve have rimarily a county file, in which are placed all etters relative to prospective sales arranged by counties, so if our traveling man is going through a certain district of the country, he can run through this file and regulate his visits and conduct by the matter which it contains. As soon as one of these prospectives becomes a customer, the letter receives a number, and becomes an integral part of our numeric system, finding its place in numeric order under the State in the larger series of cabinets. Regarding the adaptability of this filing system by numbers, we have found it most satisfactory— we can not speak in high enough terms of it. \Ve find it adequate for all demands, and we have a very heavy correspondence. The capacity of our system is about two hundred thousand letters. We use the card system, keeping all correspondence with our customers and accounts in our ledgers, by the same number, found in the card index.”
A large Chicago concern which deals with advertisers throws the following light on its methods and office system :
“ Our territory is systematically divided, and a portion assigned to each of our solicitors, who is made responsible for his field. The inquiries, as they are received, are tabulated in a card system operated numerically in connection with an expansive filing system. This method we have employed for about two years. At that time we discarded making copies of our correspondence in the old method,and adopted the idea of making carbon copies of our letters, which enables us to file the letter and answer in one compartment. \Ve consider that this manner of handling our corresprmdence is as great an improvement in this office as is the emplo ment of typewriting machines over the o (1 method of writing letters. The Correspond
ence in this cabinet and the tabulated record of inquiries in the card system work in harmony, and are arranged both by territory and under the date in which they should receive attention. Thus, an inquiry is first tabulated on the card system, then the correspondence is arranged in the expansive file, and subsequent letters are so placed that our solicitors are kept informed at all times of our operations with each customer, and are enabled by this excellent method to interview the advertiser at just the right time to secure the best results.”
Source: Marketing Communications ©1898

Record-Filing—The Vertical System
By a record-filing system is meant the indexing of papers or other records (not necessarily letters but frequently so) that do not have to be transcribed but may be filed away in the original form.
The vertical system is the one most generally used in filing correspondence.
As business letters come in various sizes, forms, and thicknesses of letter paper, with not a few postal cards scattered in, it is necessary to have a means of conveniently holding and handling them. For accomplishing this purpose the folder is employed. A folder is a sheet of heavy manila paper made with one fold and measuring when folded about 12" wide by 9J" high. A folder of this kind holds from 50 to 100 letters, depending on the thickness of the sheets, etc. The back sheet and front sheet of the folders are nearly equal in height, though the back sheet should project slightly above the front sheet for convenience in handling.
One of the best forms of folders now used is that termed "half cut" in lefts and rights. This tab is printed with the words "Name" and "Number," as a folder generally is devoted to a certain firm or individual, and this space provides for entering the name thereon. On the second line of the tab may be written the date of the oldest letter and the date of the latest when the folder has become filled.
When folders are placed in the vertical file-drawer they are just high enough to allow the extension on the guides to project above them. As with the card-system so with the vertical system, the folders must always be filed behind (not in front) the guides. There is no limit to the number of folders which may be filed behind a single guide. Separate folders may be assigned to different firms and individuals or to different towns if the filing is by location instead of alphabetically.
Source: Style-Book of Business English, designed for use in Business Courses ©1811

Wednesday, July 16, 2014

Across the Moorland

I thought I'd depart from Historical Fashion Wednesdays today and share this piece I stumbled across. It's a passage from a 19th century text that has interesting language. I find it helpful to get a sense of how our characters speak. I hope you enjoy!

Across the Moorland
AFTER a wild, boisterous night, the wind subsided somewhat, and although the barometer was still very low, I decided to make a start on my dreary drive of eight miles across the moorland. We were going to shoot through a few small scattered coverts on the fringe of the heather, and the bag, if not large, was likely to be varied, there being a probability of killing, or at least getting a few shots at, two or three couple of woodcock.
The hills at the head of the dale were shrouded in mist, and on the western horizon were banks of dark and threatening rainclouds. The air, too, was raw and chilly, and as we left the cultivated valley a keen wind came sweeping off the moorland.
The cattle in the pastures were huddled together under the walls, and on the lower allotments the sheep also were flocked together under the brow of the hill. These things, to a moorland resident, portended a storm, and when, further on, we met one of the dalesmen bringing a starved-looking mare and her foal down to the farm, our hopes for a fine day fell to zero. The road here for several miles is bounded on each side by the dry stone walls peculiar to this district. On one side the wide open moors stretched away for miles, whilst on the other were big allotments covered with ling, patches of bracken, and rough tussocky grass, with here and there stunted thorn trees, on the berries of which in severe weather the grouse are to be seen greedily feeding.
Grouse on these moors are numerous, and as we drove along they constantly rose from the heather on either side of the road, some to wing their way across the flat to the hills in the distance, others to pitch on the top of the wall, where with outstretched necks they would sit until the trap approached within gunshot; the old cocks, in the full beauty of their winter plumage, with a bit of brilliant scarlet colouring about
the head, frequently rising almost perpendicularly in the air, and then pitching a few hundred yards away in the long heather. Still the rain kept off, although the keen breeze increased until it became half a gale. On leaving the wall-bounded road for the open moorland, we appeared to be driving into the clouds of rain that were wind-driven across the face of the distant hills. Surrounded here on all sides by heather-clad moorland, we had left all signs of civilisation behind us, and the rain-sodden roads, bounded only by the wet ling, with here and there pools of dark peat-water, or a brown-tinted rushing mountain beck, were dreary and desolate in the extreme. No sign of life except the grouse, which ever and anon crossed before us, flying fearlessly over the line of empty butts that here run parallel to the road, and beside which lay piles of many-coloured empty cartridge shells. The patches of burnt heather were tinged with grey, due to a lichenlike growth which had sprung up to cover the earth; the tall rushes were bending beneath the strong wind which raised mimic waves on a tiny moorland loch, and the " bent " grass and russet bracken only intensified the dull brown tints of the never-ending stretches of heather. Once, for a few minutes, the sun gleamed through the masses of dark clouds, lighting up in flame-like lines the brows of the nearer hills, and sparkling on the rain-spangled heather. Then, as we crossed the shoulder of a projecting hill, 'he valley appeared at our feet, with the grey moorland village nestling beside the winding river at its foot. Crossing a tiny stream by a stone bridge, unprotected on either side, we soon reach our destination in the sheltered dale, and, after a brief "ifer-val, make a move towards the nearest covert—a small square Plantation of spruce and larch, with a plenteous undergrowth of rough grass and dead bracken, interspersed with a few holly bushes and tangled masses of brambles. We are only a small party of three guns and five beaters, together with a brace of hard-working Sussex spaniels, the best of all spaniels for general work.
Taking up our positions, we soon hear the tap, tap of the beaters, and then a shout of " Mark cock," quickly followed by a couple of reports from the outside gun. The spaniels give tongue, now approaching us, then turning back towards the beaters, and as they once more come towards us a rabbit is seen for an instant as he crosses an open space; the shot that follows is evidently successful, as the music of the spaniels ceases, and soon one appears with the rabbit in his mouth. A cock pheasant comes rocketing over, and is neatly stopped.
Source: Country Life ©1898

Tuesday, July 15, 2014

Cookie Anyone

For the sweet tooth of your historical characters here are some cookie recipes:

SUGAR COOKIES.
Half a pound of butter, one pound of sugar, six eggs, one teaspoonful of powdered hartshorn, two pounds of flour. Mix butter and eggs to a cream. Add eggs two at a time. Dissolve the hartshorn in a little milk, and add to the mixture. Add flour, and mix well. Roll, then bake in hot oven.
ANOTHER SUGAR COOKIE.
Four ounces of butter, twelve ounces of sugar, two eggs, half a pint of milk, one teaspoonful of hartshorn, two pounds of flour. Mix butter and sugar well together. Add eggs, then the milk with hartshorn dissolved in it. Then add flour. Mix as little as possible. Too much mixing will make this dough tough. Roll fairly thin, and bake in hot oven.
Source: Green's Receipt Book ©1894

CUP COOKIES.
Rub to a cream three-quarters of a cup of butter and one cup of sugar; add four eggs, one at a time, and the grated peel of a lemon. Then dissolve a lump of ammonia, about the size of a bean, in a quarter of a pound of lukewarm milk ; add this and just enough sifted flour to enable you to roll out on the baking-board. Roll quite thin. Beat up an egg and brush over the cookies, sprinkle with sugar, cinnamon and pounded almonds. These are very nice. Be careful not to add too much flour. Omit the almonds if you are not fond of them.‘
CARAWAY SEED COOKIES.
Take one cup of butter, two cups of sugar, one cup of milk, three teaspoonfuls of baking powder, three to five eggs and two teaspoonfuls of caraway seed. Flour enough to roll. Don’t get it too stiff.
CLOVE COOKIES.
Take two cups gf butter, two of sugar, one of milk; quarter of apound of almonds, five cents’ worth of oil of cloves; flour enough to roll and two teaspoonfuls of baking powder.
GINGER COOKIES.
Take one cupful of sugar, two of molasses, one of butter; one teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a cup of boiling water; one tablespoonful of ginger, and flour enough to mix, and roll out soft.
MILK COOKIES.
Take one cupful of butter, one of sugar, two ' or three eggs, and two-thirds of a cupful of sour milk. Dissolve a teaspoonful of soda in a little hot water; add part of it at a time to the milk until it foams as you stir it. Be careful not to get in too much. Mix up soft, only using flour suflicient to roll out thin. A teaspoonful of cardamom seed may be sprinkled into the
dough.
CITRON COOKIES.
Take one-half cup of butter and one cup and a half of sugar, and rub to a cream. Add two eggs, three-quarters of a‘ cup of milk, one—half cup of citron, cut up very fine, one teaspoonful of allspice and one of cloves. Take whole spices and pound them in a mortar, and flour to thicken. Make stiffer than ordinary cup cake dough; flavor to suit'taste, and drop on large tins with a teaspoon. Grease the pans, and bake in a quick oven. The best plan is to try one on a plate. If the dough runs too much add _more flour._ Sift one heaping teaspoonful of baking powder in with the flour.
YUM-YUMS.
Beat the whites of two eggs to a stiff froth, adding gradually one cup of confectioner’s sugar and one heaping cupful of dessicated cocoanut, and two heaping teaspoonfuls of arrowroot. Drop from the teaspoon upon buttered paper in a large baking pan. Drop an inch apart. Bake in a moderate oven fifteen minutes.
CARDAMOM COOKIE S.
(No. 1.) Rub to a cream half a pound of best butter and add half a pound of pulverized sugar, the grated peel of a lemon, a tablespoonful of brandy, and the grated yelks of six hardboiled eggs, a teaspoonful of cardamom seed pounded fine, a tablespoonful of rosewater, and as much pulverized ammonia as you can put on the end of a knife. Work this into a soft dough, with just enough flour to roll out. Don’t get your dough too stiff, flour your board thickly and roll out thin. Spread with the beaten whites of the eggs and pounded almonds. Bake in a quick oven for about ten minutes. Prepare the eggs same as for “ Mother’s Delicious Cookies,” by breaking each egg carefully, putting the whites in a deep bowl and setting on ice until wanted, and put each yelk into a half shell (do this as you break each egg,’ leaving the ‘yelk in the same egg shell) and set in boiling water and boil until hard, then take them out and set in a cool place, and do not attempt to grate them until perfectly cold. It would be much easier to boil the whole egg, but then you would waste
the whites.
(No. 2.) Boil six eggs hard. When cold shell and grate the yelks (reserve the whites for salads or to garnish vegetables), add half a pound of sugar, the grated peel of a lemon and half a wineglassful of brandy. Stir in half a pound of butter which has been worked to a cream (unless your butter is sweet you had better wash it
through several waters before rubbing it). Sift‘
in as much flour as you think will allow you to roll out the dough; take as little as possible, a little over half a pound, and flour the board very thick. Put in about two cents’ worth of cardamom seed and very little rosewater. Cut out with a fancy cake cutter and brush with beaten egg. Sprinkle pounded almonds‘ and sugar on top. If you add half a teaspoonful of pulverized ammonia it will .make the cookies very light. It should .be ‘sifted with the flour.
SPICE WAFERS.
Take one pound of flour, one pound of sugar, seven eggs, the grated peel of a lemon, a piece of citron, also grated, a tablespoonful of ground cinnamon, a teaspoonful of cardamom ‘seed, pounded fine, and half a teaspoonful of ground cloves. Stir the eggs, sugar and spices about half an hour, add the sifted flour gradually; cut the wafers with a teaspoon and bake in pans upon buttered or waxed paper,
CHOCOLATE WAFERS.
Take one-quarter of a pound of the best vanilla chocolate, grated, one-quarter of a pound of confectioner’s sugar, one-quarter of a pound of grated almonds (a few bitter ones mixed), and the stifi'-beaten whites of six eggs. Stir the sugar and beaten whites, then add the chocolate and almonds, and drop upon waxed paper with a teaspoon, about two inches apart.
Source: Aunt Babett's Cook Book ©1889

Monday, July 14, 2014

Calico Fabric and Printing

Below are some tidbits about Calico Printing and fabric. While the fabric design did not start in the 19th Century, in fact it began in the 1700's, it was definitely an important part of our 19th century ancestors or characters.

Calico Printing is perhaps the most important branch springing from the parent stem of the cotton trade: it may be described as the art and process by which colours are placed on to the plain fabric, giving variations of form, and gradations of colour, more cheaply and expeditiously than in the loom;
...
The common import of the term Calico-Printer now, is a printer of all sorts of fabrics—calicoes, muslins, linens, silks, or woollens, or the many mixed varieties, composed of different materials.
Source: Calico Printing As an Art Manufacture, a Lecture ©1852

TOPICAL Dyeing or Calico Printing, is the art of printing various coloured patterns upon plain calicoes by applying certain colourless mordaunts to the cloth.
This beautiful art is one of great antiquity, and was carried to considerable perfection in India. As the object in this brief sketch is not to instruct the calico printer, but to give the general reader an idea of this singular art, we shall omit all the previous processes of preparing the calico for the printer.
The pattern to be impressed on the calico was formerly cut out in relief on a wooden block of the requisite size, exactly like a wooden cut for figures or diagrams. The wood used was generally holly, and the cutting of the pattern formed a separate trade called block-cutting. The perishable nature of wood, however, involved the printer often in much expense, and hence a great improvement has taken place by using slender pieces of brass or copper, which are fixed on the wood so as to produce the pattern, and which give greater sharpness and precision to the impressions. The next implement is the sieve with its case. The sieve consists of a broad hoop like that of a tambourin with a piece of superfine woollen cloth stretched tightly across it. The case consists of another wider hoop covered witli sheep skin or oil cloth. The sieve placed in its case is now plunged in a tub of gum water.
The mordaunt mixed up with paste made of flour or a thick solution of gum Arabic, or gum Senegal, or gum nigacanth, is then spread with a brush on the cloth of the sieve, a part of the process which is called teesing. When the mordaunt is colourless, as the acetate of alumine, a little purple dye with a decoction of Brazil wood is mixed up with it to sighten it as the workmen say, or to make the pattern apparent to the eye.
The workman now takes the pattern block in one hand and the sieve in the other, and applying the surface of the block to that of the sieve, he then takes up a sufficient quantity of the thickened mordaunt so as to cover every part of the surface of the pattern formed by the copper lines. He then applies the block to the calico and impresses it with a gentle blow from a mallet. In this manner he goes over the whole piece. When a variety of colours is required, several different mordaunts are required, as different colours require different mordaunts to fix them. In order to evaporate the acids of the mordaunts, which might weaken the fabric of the cloth, the calico is placed in a room called the stove/heated with flues to about 90°. When the common red liquor mordaunt is used, the calico remains here about 24 hours; but when citric acid is used, a much shorter time is nesessary, and when a strong muriate of lime has been employed, half an hour of the stove is sufficient.
When iron liquor is the mordaunt, the intensity of the colour is increased, and the process much improved by exposing the calico for several days to the atmosphere. The black oxide of iron then acquires an additional dose of oxygen, and approaches nearer to the red or peroxide, which is the preferable mordaunt. Mr. Parker suggests it as an object of inquiry, whether or not the substitution of a current of atmospheric air for a great part of the drying in the stove, might not be an advantage.
The calico is now washed with water and a little cow dung, at various temperatures, an operation of from 5 to 40 minutes, which revives the uncombined part of the mordaunt, and which is now performed in what is called dunging machines. Mr. Parker is of opinion, that the dung, (which Bethollet found to contain a substance like bile,) imparts an animal matter to the fibres of the calico, which acts as an additional mordaunt. When the goods are perfectly rinsed in river and
tepid water, they are boiled for ten or fifteen minutes in madder, and in the process called maddering, the calicoes receive, at one operation, all their requisite colours. The colouring matter of the madder is precipitated to a red by one mordaunt, to a purple by another, and to a black by a third, so that we can obtain every possible shade, from a lilac to a black, or from a pink to a red.
By adding to the madder some weld or bark, every shade from zbrown to an orange may be produced, and with weld or bark, also, we obtain all colours from a dark olive to a bright lemon. In order to produce the finest yellow or delicate lemon colour, the calico should be dried in the open air, as stove drying converts a yellow to an orange, and the dunging ■should not be performed at a higher temperature than 96° or 100°.
The calicoes are next to be branned, an operation which is effected by removing them from the weld or madder copper to a boiler containing wheat bran and water, in which all stains are cleared from the white portion, though at the risk of the colours being somewhat impaired. Mr. Parker has found that a peculiar redness may be imparted to all madder colours, by raising them with a mixture of bran and madder, that is, by adding a little bran to the madder, in the maddering process.
As the whites cannot always be cleared by the branning, lest the colours should be impaired, the rest of the operation of bleaching the whites is performed by exposure on the grass for some days; but in Scotland, this process has been effected in a few minutes, by immersion of the colours in a weak solution of one of the bleaching sails, such as oxymuriate of potash, soda, and magnesia.
The mordaunts used by the calico printers are oommonly acetate of iron for browns, blacks, lilacs, &c. and aeelate of alumine for all shades of yellows and reds, &c. Nitrate of iron, obtained by dissolving metallic iron in a peculiar kind of aquafortis, yields blacks, which, like those obtained from galls, are applied at once to the cloth, and are not afterwards raised by dying, like the black of the common iron liquor. Hence the black of the nitrate of iron can be mixed with other colours.
Another kind of calico printing, called resist work, is now in common use. A resist paste is composed of sulphate, nitrate, muriate, or acetate of copper, of which the sulphate is the best, mixed with flour paste, or any of the other gums, or with pipe-clay and gum. With this paste the pattern is printed on the calico, which when sufficiently dry is repeatedly dipped in the blue vat, till they have received the requisite depth of tint. The goods are then washed and passed through diluted sulphuric acid, and all the parts printed by the preparation of copper are found to be of a good white, in consequence of having resisted the action of the indigo, though all the rest of the calico has been permanently dyed. The deep blue calicoes, with white figures or white spots, are generally executed by the resist process with indigo; and by a peculiar method, with subsequent dying or madder, weld or bark, red or yellow spots or figures may be produced upon a blue ground.
A method of resisting;, or stopping out particular colours with wax, though an expensive one, ■was formerly in general use, and wax is still employed in India for preserving the white portions. In the manufacture of silk Bandana handkerchiefs, a preparation of tallow and ro3in, made fluid by heat, is used for printing the patterns, which are thus left white, and preserved from the operation of the indigo, which gives the rest a blue colour.
When the ground is to be white, and only a single sprig or small object is to form the pattern, it is executed by means of a pencil, with what is called pencil blue, which is formed of 10 oz. of finely ground indigo, 20 oz. of quick lime in lumps, 20 oz. of potash of commerce, and 10 oz. of orpiment, mixed up in a gallon of water, and thickened with gum Senegal.
In another operation of calico printing, called chemical discharge work, the goods are dyed of one uniform colour, with a mixture of iron iiquor, and any of the dyeing substances. When they are washed, dried, turned, and calendered, a discharging liquor is prepared by dissolving in one of the mineral acids a portion of one or more of the metals, according to the nature of the colour to be discharged, or of that to be produced. For example, if a piece of calico, treated with a decoction of Brazil wood, and dyed black by being maddered with iron liquor, be printed when dry, with a peculiar solution of tirr, the iron in the dye will be dissolved, and the printed part will instantly be converted from a deep black into a brilliant crimson.
The introduction of cylinder printing into the calico manufacture, is a most important step in its progress. Cylinders from 18 to 42 inches long, and from 3i to 5 inches wide, are now formed by hammering plates of copper into a circular form, though sometimes they are bored out of a solid mass of copper. The pattern is enchased on the surface. The cylinders furnish themselves with colouring matter, placed in a trough, and are kept clear by a steel knife, called the doctor, which passes over the surface, when they are charged with the thickened colour. The cylinder, thus coloured, rolls over the piece of calico, from one end to the other, and communicates the pattern with the greatest certainty and accuracy. Sometimes two cylinders are used to give two different colours at the same time. Mr. A. Parkinson of Manchester, has invented a machine, on which one cylinder and two surface rollers give three distinct colours.
Other machines have been employed, called surface machines. They consist of cylinders of wood, with the pattern formed upon them, exactly like the pattern blocks already described. By means of those cylinder machines, a piece of calico, which employs a man and a boy three hours, may be done in three or three and a half minutes.
Hence the British calico printer has been able to finish calico goods, in which the printing consists of precipitating the colouring matter of logwood and other vegetable dyes, without using any mordaunt or previous preparation whatever, at the rate of one penny per yard, including every expense of colour, paste, and printing. In such goods, the pat
tern will be washed out by the first shower of rain. For a full account of topical dyeing in calico printing, the reader is referred to Parke's Chemical Essays, from the information contained in which we have drawn up the above brief article. See also our article Bandana Handkerchiefs, Vol. III. p. 213.
Source: The Edinburgh Encyclopedia ©1832

Friday, July 11, 2014

Punch Recipes

In keeping with the beverage theme below are a few recipes for various punches. It appears that punch was often considered a mixed drink back in the 19th Century, so if you are writing in the Inspirational market many of the recipes would not be allowed. However, how much fun would it be to try and have a character figuring out how to have the same taste without the brandy, rum, wine, etc.

PUNCH.
Ingredients: 2 large lemons, 1/2 lb. of lump-sugar, 1/2 bottle of brandy, 1/2 bottle of rum, 4 bottle of port wine, 3 pints of hot water side: Rub some of the lumps of sugar well over the skins of the lemons, and put them and the remainder into a bowl; then add the juice, working all together with a spoon; pour on the hot water, the brandy, rum, and port wine, stirring all the time. Some persons prefer green tea to plain hot water, and some substitute 4 pint of porter for the port wine. If the punch is considered too strong with the above proportion of spirit, it can be reduced or diluted with more water.
Other Recipes.—1. Take 2 or 3 good fresh lemons, ripe and with rough skins, and some lumps of good sugar; grate a handful of the skins of the lemons through a bread-grater on the sugar; then squeeze in the lemons, bruise the sugar, and stir the juice well together, for much depends on the process of mixing the sugar and lemons. Pour on them 1 quart of boiling water, and again mix well together; add 1 1/2 pint of brandy, and the same quantity of rum ; stir up, strain through a sieve, put in 1 pint of syrup and 1 or 2 quarts of boiling water, or, what is far better

Punch.
3 pints of boiling water and 1 pint of warm porter, adding the froth of the porter last, and after the rest has been well stirred together. This gives a creamy appearance to the punch, while the porter itself adds much to its fulness of flavour.—2. Take 6 lemons and 2 Seville oranges; rub off the yellow rinds of 3 or 4 of the lemons with lumps of fine loaf-sugar, putting each lump into the bowl as soon as saturated with the oil and juice; then thinly pare the other lemons and Seville oranges, and put these rinds also into the bowl, adding plenty of sugar; pour on a very small quantity of boiling water, and then press the juice of all the fruit, and follow by a little more warm water. Make up to the above quantity of fruit, the sugar to 1 1/2 lb., and the water to 1 gallon, making the whole about 5 quarts; to this add 1 quart of Jamaica rum and 1 pint of French brandy, or a greater proportion of spirit, if desired to be very strong.— 3. To 1 teaspoonful of citric acid put 1/4 lb. of sugar, 1 quart of water, nearly boiling, 1/2 pint of rum, 1/4 pint of brandy, and a little lemon-peel, or, in lieu of it, a few drops of the essence of lemon may be added.

PUNCH A LA FORD.
Peel very thin 3 dozen lemons into an earthen vessel, add 2 lb. of lumpsugar, stir the peels and sugar together with a wooden spoon for nearly half an hour to extract the essential oil from the peels; then pour upon the peels some boiling water, and stir till the sugar is dissolved. Cut the lemons and squeeze out the juice, strain out the pips and pour boiling water upon them; after a time, strain this water into the earthen vessels, and pour in also half the quantity of lemon-juice. This sherbet should now be tasted, and more acid, or more sugar, added, as required. Strain it clear, and to every three quarts add 1 pint of cognac brandy and 1 pint of old rum. Bottle immediately. The punch so made Putty.
Raspberry Syrup.
will keep for years, and is improved by age.
Source: Beeton's Dictionary of Practical Recipes and Every-day Information ©1871

Milk Punch.—Fill a large glass one third full of fine ice, add 1 teaspoonful sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls brandy, and 1 tablespoonful St. Croix rum; fill the glass with milk, put over the shaker, shake for a few minutes, strain in a glass, and serve.
Milk Punch with Egg.—Stir the yolk of 1 egg with 1 tablespoonful powdered sugar to a cream, add a small glass of brandy, and a little St. Croix rum; then beat the white to a stiff froth in a large tumbler; add the above mixture gradually, while beating constantly, then add sufficient milk to fill the glass, add a little ice, and, if liked, season with grated nutmeg.
Hot Orange Punch.—Boil 1/2 pound sugar with 1 pint of water, remove, add the peel of 1 orange, let it remain 5 minutes; then take out the peel, add 1/2 pint of strained orange juice, 1 gill of lemon juice, 1/2 pint of rum or brandy; heat the whole without boiling and serve hot.
Champagne Punch.—Pour 1 pint of boiling water over 2 teaspoonf uls of the best Oolong tea, cover, and let it stand in a warm place 10 minutes; then strain and set aside; when cold put the tea into a punch bowl, add l/2 pint of Khine wine, 1 tablespoonful of brandy, the same of maraschino, 1 bottle of plain soda, and 1 quart bottle champagne, 1 sliced banana, and 1 sliced orange and a piece of ice.
Fruit Punch.—Put 1/2 pint of orange juice with 1 pound of sugar into a bowl, add 1 gill of lemon juice, 1/2 pint of strawberry sirup or juice, or 1/2 pint of raspberry sirup, 2 quarts water,pint fine-cut pineapple, and, if in season, 1/2 pint fresh strawberries, and a piece of ice; let stand 15 minutes, then serve.
Cold Claret Punch.—Put 1 bottle of good claret into a bowl, add 3/4 cupful sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls Curacoa and kirscb, 1 pint of cold water, a piece of ice, the juice of 1 lemon, and l/2 pint of pitted or preserved cherries; in place of cherries another kind of fruit in season may be used.
Plain Claret Punch.—Put 1 bottle claret into a bowl, add 1 1/2 cup sugar, 2 sliced lemons without the pits, 2 quarts t cold water, and a piece of ice, then serve.
Hot Claret Punch.—Boil 1 cup of sugar and 1 cup of water with the thin peel of 1 lemon and a small stick of cinnamon 5 minutes; add 1 pint of good claret, let it get boiling hot, remove the peel and cinnamon, and serve.
Rum Punch, Hot.—Boil 2 tablespoonfuls sugar with 1/2 cup water, then add 1/2 gill of best rum, 1 tablespoonful lemon juice; let it get hot without boiling, and serve. This is excellent for a cold. Brandy punch is made the same way.
Orangeade.—Put 1/2 pint of orange juice and 1 gill of lemon juice into a bowl, add 1/2 pint of raspberry sirup, 1 cupful sugar, 2 quarts cold water, a piece of ice, 1/2 pint fine-cut pineapple, either fresh or preserved, 1 fine-sliced banana, and 1 orange cut into fine slices and freed from pits; let it stand 30 minutes, then serve.
Orangeade, Plain.—Pare very thin the yellow skin from 4 large oranges, lay the peel in a bowl, cut the oranges into halves, and press out the juice and strain it over the orange peel; add the strained juice of 4 lemons, add 2 cups sugar, cover, and let stand 10 minutes, then remove the peel, add 2 quarts water, a piece of ice, and a few slices of oranges freed from the pits, and serve.
Strawberry Punch.—Inclose 1 quart of well-cleaned ripe strawberries in a piece of cheese cloth, press out all the juice into a bowl, add the juice of 2 lemons, 1 bottle Khine or white wine, 2 cupfuls sugar, 2 quarts cold water, a large piece of ice, and 1 pint of nice ripe strawberries, let it stand 15 minutes, then serve; if not sweet enough, add more sugar. In place of strawberries, 1 pint of strawberry sirup may be taken and less sugar.
Strawberryade.—Mix in a punch bowl 1 pint of strawberry sirup, 1 cupful lemon juice, 1 cupful sugar, 2 quarts cold water, a piece of ice, and 1 pint of fresh strawberries; if strawberries are not in season, cut 2 oranges into fine slices, and free them from all pits, cut each slice in half, and add them to the bowl.
Source: Chafing - Dish Recipes ©1896


Thursday, July 10, 2014

Shaving Cream

Today we get it out of a can but this was not the case not that long ago, especially during the 19th Century. Below is some basic information and recipes for making the shaving cream of the past.

Soft Toilet Soaps Of Potash.
Shaving Creams.
White Soft Soap.
Soaps of potash are among the most valuable cosmetics prepared by the soap-maker or perfumer, and much care should be exercised in having the purest materials, the greatest cleanliness, and the true equivalents of the parts, as any carelessness in them particularly deteriorates the quality of the product.

To prepare this soap very white, operate in the following manner:—
Melt in a sheet-iron kettle of a capacity of about 50 gallons, 50 pounds of white fat, and 13 lbs. of cocoa oil. When the fatty matters are entirely melted, add 50 lbs. of lye of potash at 20° or 21° B. Stir all the time, so as to aid the saponification, the temperature being kept at from 60 to 65.5° C. (140° to 150° F.). Under the influence of heat and stirring, the aqueous part of the lye evaporates and the mixture acquires a thicker consistency. Sometimes it happens that a part of the fatty matters separates; this effect is produced especially when the temperature of the mixture is raised near the boiling point, because at that temperature, concentrated lyes have little affinity for fatty substances. This effect may also be produced by the insufficiency of alkali in the mixture. In the first case the homogeneity is re-established by moderating the action of the heat, and in the other, by pouring into the kettle a portion of strong lye necessary to complete the saponification.
This first stage of the operation lasts about four hours. To obtain a perfect soap, add a new portion of 10 lbs. of lye of potash at 16° B., and be careful to keep the mixture very uniform by a continual stirring. Keep the temperature below the boiling point, and as much as possible between 60° and 65.5° C. (140° and 150° F.).
The saponification is finished when the paste has acquired a very thick consistency; at this point turn off the heat.
Many perfumers prepare this soap in iron kettles with a double bottom, heated by steam; some use silver kettles which are preferable, because the soap will retaiu in them all its whiteness.

Almond Shaving Cream.
Take a few pounds of the above soft soap, introduce it into a marble mortar, and strongly triturate with a wooden pestle. The operation is finished when the soap forms a soft and homogeneous paste; the more it is beaten, the finer it will be. To perfume it, incorporate from \\ to 2 drachms of oil of bitter almonds per pound.
Thus prepared, this soap forms an unctuous paste very soluble in water. When it contains some cocoa-nut oil, it is yet softer.

Rose Shaving Cream.
To give this soap a slight rose color, when pearling add one-quarter to one-half a drachm of vermilion per pound of soap, perfume with otto of rose; it then takes the name of rose shaving cream.
Ambrosial Shaving Cream, Crime d'Ambrosie. — Perfume with liquid storax and benzoin, oils of bergamot and cloves, and color purple with tincture of archil.

Shaving Cream By Boiling.
In some instances, a soap by boiling will prove more satisfactory, particularly when it is mixed and milled with a soda soap to form shaving tablets. The cream is rarely of so white a color as that made by the cold process. To proceed, take 30 pounds of white grease to 45 pounds of potash-lye of 17° B., and boil gently while stirring, until a paste is formed, when boil more briskly until the vapors nearly cease, and the soap forms into an almost perfect jelly when it is finished, and when cold it should be almost neutral.
Source: A Technical Treatise on Soap and Candles ©1881

Wednesday, July 9, 2014

1883 Fashions

Below are 1883 Historical Fashions from magazines from the time period.

Ladies

House Dress

Ladies Jacket and Collar
Ladies Jacket and Cape

Ladies Hat

Ladies Bonnet

Children

Child Hand Muff

Tuesday, July 8, 2014

Devon Cattle

Various breeds of cattle is not a revelation for the writer or the historical writer, however, these tidbits about the Devon Cattle breed might be helpful to you as a writer.

This race of cattle has been bred in England for a couple of centuries, and greatly admired for their many good qualities. They were imported from that country into the United States at the beginning of the present century; and are already increasing in numbers without any effort being made by the breeders to introduce them. For a large portion of our country they are better adapted than any other, being just the cattle for the hills. They are not excelled for their hardiness by any other breed; thriving where other cattle would starve, and yet showing care and good feed as much as any. For the yoke they have long been considered excellent; being docile, strong and quick in their motions. The quality of their beef is well attested by the price it brings at Smithfield market in London. When bred for milk, they equal any; as numerous cases of their producing from fourteen to nineteen pounds of butter per week will show.
They vary in color from a light to a dark red, with flesh-colored muzzles, with same around the eyes, the tip of the tail white, and sometimes their udders are white, but it should be nowhere else. Some breeders seem to prefer the light red color, while others prefer the dark red, but it is best to avoid either extreme. They are called by many the "little Devons," but it is not at all uncommon to find cows weighing from thirteen to fifteen hundred pounds, the bulls from fifteen to twenty-one hundred pounds, and thesteers often forty-five hundred per yoke. Duke of Hampden 832, at 36 months old weighed 2,030 pounds.
As for their milk and butter qualities, Mr. Wainwright, of Rhinebeck, N. Y., says he made 14 lbs. of butter per week from Helena 1712 (774 E); F. P. Holcomb, of New Castle, Del., 19 1-2 a week from Lady; Hon. H. Capron, formerly of Robin's Nest, 1l1., 21 lbs. in nine days, from Flora 2d, 120; C. P. Holcomb, New Castle, Del., in the summer of 1843, in twelve weeks, made from one cow 174 3-4 lbs. of butter, or an average of 14 lbs. and 9 oz. per week; during one week she made 19 lbs., and in three days 9 1-2 lbs. W. L. Cowles, Farmington, Conn., 16 1-2 lbs. in ten days. J. Buckingham, Duncan's Falls, O., in three months, summer of 1856, from four cows, an average of 44 1-2 lbs. per week, besides using the cream and milk in a family of seven persons. L. G. Collins, Newark, Mo., from the dam of Red Jacket, 98, 16 3-4 lbs. per week. Mr. Coleman, 21 lbs. per week for several weeks in succession. Mr. Hurlbut, of Connecticut, from Beauty (523 E), averaged 16 lbs. per week during June, 1850, when she was 16 years old. This is but a small portion of, those on my list as famous for butter.

What I also found interesting in this book was the names for the calves listed along with the year they were born. Helpful little tidbit if you want to name the family cow something other then Bessy.
The American Devon Herd Book

Here is a link from the Breeds of Livestock Web Page about the Devon Breed.

Monday, July 7, 2014

Beverages Part 4 Lemonades

Finishing my Monday morning beverages; here are some Lemonade recipes.

Lemonades
—Lemons furnish two important products for the formation of beverages, an acid juice, and an aromatic stomachic oil, contained in the rind. Lemon juice is a slightly turbid, very sour liquid, having a pleasant flavor when diluted. It contains a considerable quantity of gummy mucilage, which causes it to become mouldy on exposure to the air. It is capable of furnishing a large number of acidulated drinks, which are exceedingly useful in allaying thirst, and are most valuable for their anti-scorbutic properties.
In making any kind of lemonade, the proportions given need not be adhered to, but the quantities
ordered may be increased or lessened to suit the taste.
For a quart of lemonade, take six lemons and a quarter of a pound of sugar; rub off part of the yellow rind of the lemons on to the sugar, squeeze the juice on to the latter, and pour on the water boiling hot; mix the whole, and run through a flannel jelly-bag.
Lemons are not always to be procured, especially on a journey, and we have, therefore, much pleasure in drawing attention to the following useful directions for making portable lemonade

Excellent Portable Lemonade.
—Rasp with a quarter of a pound of sugar, the rind of a fine juicy lemon ; reduce the sugar to powder, and pour on it the strained juice of the fruit ; press the mixture into a jar, and when wanted for use dissolve a tablespoonful of it in a glass of water; it will keep a considerable time. If too sweet for the taste of the drinker, a very small portion of citric acid may be added when it is taken.

Mock LEMONADE
—A cheap substitute for lemonade may be made as follows: Tartaric acid, a quarter of an ounce; sugar, six ounces ; essence of lemon, dropped on the sugar, about four or five drops; boiling water, two- pints. This, allowed to stand till cold, makes a wholesome, cooling, summer beverage, economical in its cost, but the flavor is not equal to that prepared from lemon juice.

SUPERIOR LEMON A LA SoYEm
—Take the peel of six lemons, free from pith, cut it up in small pieces, and put it with two cloves into a bottle containing half a pint of hot water, place the bottle in a stewpan with boiling water, and let it stand by the side of a fire for one or two hours, taking care it does not boil; then take half a pint of lemon juice, half a pint of syrup, if none, use plain syrup, or sugar, in like proportion, adding a few drops of orange flower water; add the infusion of the rind, which has been previously made, and allowed to be come cold, stir well together, and add two quarts of cold water.

Lemonade a la Scum
—Put a quart of water in a stewpan to boil, into which put two moist dried figs, each split in two; let it boil l1. quarter of an hour, then have ready the peel of a lemon, taken of f rather thickly, and the half of the lemon cut in thin slices; throw them into the stewpan, and boil two minutes longer, then pour it into a jug, which cover closely with paper until cold, then pass it through a sieve, add a teaspoonful of honey, and it is ready for use.
Orangeade a la Soye—Proceed as for lemonade, but using the whole of the orange, a little of the peel included, sweetening with sugar-candy, and adding a teaspoonful of arrowroot, mixed with a little cold water, which pour into the boiling liquid at the same time you put in the orange. The 8.1‘rowroot makes it very delicate.

BARLEY LEMONADE
—Put a quarter of a pound of sugar into a small stewpan, with half a pint of water, which boil about ten minutes, or until forming a thickish syrup ; then add the rind of a fresh‘ lemon and the pulp of two; let it boil two minutes longer, when add two quarts of barley-water, made without sugar and lemon; boil five minutes longer, pass it through a hair sieve into a jug, which cover with paper, making a hole in the centre to let the heat through; when cold it is ready for use; if put cold into a bottle, and well corked down, it would keep good several days.
Source: The Goodey's Lady's Book Receipts ©1870

Friday, July 4, 2014

Baths & Bathing Part 2 Cold & other types of Baths

This is the second part of the article which I posted last Friday.

I. Affusion of cold water over the surface of the body, has been adopted with success, for arresting the progress of some fevers. In scarlatina, &c, sponging the body with tepid water, or water mixed with vinegar, has been employed instead.

II. Air bath. a. (Cold.) The mere exposure of the body in a state of nudity to the atmosphere, forms the common air bath. It has been found useful in allaying slight degrees of febrile excitement, and to act as a mild tonic, when not too long continued.
b. (Hot.) This consists in placing the patient in an apartment to which heated air is admitted. It is generally considered to be more stimulant than the vapor bath; it produces a powerful perspiration, and has been recommended in cholera, congestive fevers, rheumatism, scaly skin-diseases, &.C.

III. Chlorine bath. Water holding in solution a small quantity of chlorine gas. Its action has not been much examined. I may mention here, that I have seen several cases of itch cured by two or three immersions in a warm bath, to which a little chloride of lime has been added.
IV. Cold bath. The temperature of this bath varies from 45° to 85°. It is considered tonic and stimulant, when not too long continued. To produce its full effects, the patient should feel a pleasant glow upon the surface of the body, immediately on coming out of the water. If a sensation of coldness or shivering follows, it should not be repeated. The duration of the immersion may vary from two minutes to a quarter of an hour, depending upon the temperature of the water, and the feelings of the bather; the latter period not being too long, provided swimming or violent exercise be adopted in the bath. The temperature of the water of the rivers, and on the coast of England, varies in summer from 55° to 70°.

The following hints on cold bathing may be interesting to the reader
1. "In using the cold bath, it is of essential I importance to know that there is no truth in the vulgar opinion, that it is safer to enter the water I when the body is cool, and that persons heated by exercise, and beginning to perspire, should wait till they are perfectly cooled.
"It is a rule liable to no exception, that moderate exercise ought always to precede cold bathing; for neither previous rest, nor exercise to a violent degree, is proper on this occasion.
2. "The duration of cold bathing ought to be short, and must be determined by the bodily constitution and sensation of the individual; for healthy persons may continue in it much longer than valetudinarians. In summer it may be enjoyed for an hour, when in spring or autumn, one or two minutes will be sufficient. Under similar circumstances, cold water acts on aged and lean persons with more violence than on the young and corpulent; hence the former, even in the hottest days of summer, can seldom with safety remain in the bath longer than a quarter of an hour; while the latter are generally able to sustain its impressions for a much longer period.
3. "The head should first come in contact with the water, either by immersion, by being showered upon, or by covering it for a minute with a wet cloth, and then plunging head foremost into the water.
4. "As the immersion will be less felt when it is effected suddenly, and as it is of consequence that the first impression should be uniform over the body, the bath ought not to be entered slowly or timorously, but with a degree of boldness. A contrary method, in some constitutions, is dangerous, as it propels the blood from the upper to the lower parts of the body, and thus predisposes to a fit of apoplexy. For these reasons, the shower bath is attended with considerable advantages, because it transmits the water quickly over the whole body.
5. "The morning is the proper time for using the cold bath, unless it be in a river; in which case the afternoon, or from one to two hours before sunset, will be more eligible. On the whole, one hour after a light breakfast, or two hours before, or four after dinner, are the best periods of the day for this purpose.
6. "While the bather is in the water, he should not remain inactive, but apply brisk and general friction, and move his arms and legs, to promote the circulation of the fluids from the heart to the extremities. It is extremely imprudent to continue in the water till a second chilliness attacks the body.
7. "Immediately after leaving the bath, it is nscessary that the bather should quickly wipe his body dry with a coarse dry cloth. He should not afterwards sit inactive, but if the season permit, he ought to take gentle exercise, till the usual circulation, and the customary action of the muscles, be restored.
8. "The best place for cold bathing is in the sea, or a clear river; but where neither of these can be conveniently had, the shower bath may be used.
9. "The principal advantages to be expected from cold bathing, besides the salutary exercise, •re either the reduction of excessive heat, or the
producing of a salutary reaction of the system. Ia the former, it has been found useful in several fevers. Affusion, however, in those cases, is most advisable, and more efficacious in reducing the morbid temperature, than immersion. But the cold affusion must not be employed in the cold stage. As soon as the hot fit is formed, the cold affusion is to be used immediately, and repeated occasionally. In the sweating stage, it is to be cautiously avoided.
"In nervous diseases, too, the cold bath has sometimes been of service.
"In gouty and rheumatic complaints, in diseases of the hip-joint, lumbago, or sciatica, after the removal of those complaints by the use of the vapor or hot bath, and in conjunction with other remedies, the alternation of the cold with the vapor bath fortifies the constitution against a return of such attacks.
10. "The best preparation for cold bathing, is to begin with a warm, then a tepid, and afterwards a cool bath; after this course the bather may in general plunge with safety into the cold bath. In most cases, a bath every second day, from the commencement of the warm bathing to the end of a fortnight, will be sufficiently frequent; afterwards the cold immersion may be continued daily."

V. The douche consists in the projection of a stream of cold water from a tube upon any part of the body. It is powerfully sedative, and has been long employed in inflammation of the brain. It should be used with caution, as its action is so powerful that a full inflammatory pulse frequently sinks into one almost imperceptible, in a very short Bpace of time. It is one of the principal methods of applying cold water adopted by the hydropathists.
VI. Medicated baths. These consist of water holding in solution various medicinal substances; as wine-baths, milk-baths, soup-baths—these have been used to convey nourishment to the body j sulphureous baths, mercurial baths, &c., used in skin diseases, syphilis, &c.; aromatic and chalybeate baths, employed as tonics; acid baths, sometimes used to remove the effects of mercury, &c.

VII. Nitromuriatic bath. Prep. Mix 3 fluid ounces of muriatic acid with 2 fluid ounces of nitric acid, and 5 fluid ounces of distilled water, and add 3 ounces of the above mixture to every gallon of water in the bath. Should the bath prick the skin, a little more water may be added.
Remarks. This bath was first introduced as a remedy for liver complaints. It must be contained in a wooden vessel, and may be used as a hip, knee, or foot-bath, a knee-bath being the one generally adopted in England. The inventor, Dr. Scott, once plunged the Duke of Wellington up to his chin in a bath of this kind in India, and thus cured him of a severe hepatic affection.

VIII. Sulphur bath. a. The patient is placed (not including the head) in a species of box, at the bottom of which is put a piece of hot iron, on which a little sulphur is thrown, great care being taken to avoid the escape of the fumes, and the inhalation of the same by either the patient or the attendants. Another method is to dissolve a little sulphuret of potassium in the water of a common warm bath. The proportion is 1 oz. of the sul phuret to 8 gallons of water. This form of the bath is not, however, quite as efficient as the gaseous one first described.
6. (Dupuytren's gelatino-sulphurous bath.) This is formed by dissolving 1 oz. of the sulphuret of potassium and 4 oz. of Flanders glue, in every 8 gallons of the water of a warm bath. It is an imitation of the celebrated waters of Bareges, the glue supplying the place of the baregine found in the latter.
Remarks. The sulphur-bath under any form is a powerful remedy in every description of skin disease. Leprosy, the most obstinate of all, has been cured by it. The common itch requires only one or two applications of the sulphur-bath to eradicate it entirely. All forms of scurf, whether on the face, head, or body, yield to its influence. Local irritation occasioned by minute pimples, or inflammatory patches of disordered skin, is speedily subdued and removed. Scrofula, and also those affections for which the warm or vapor baths have been recommended, will derive powerful assistance from the sulphur-bath.

IX. Tepid bath. The temperature of this bath varies from 85° to 92° Fahr., 88° being considered a medium temperature. Its action on the body is intermediate between that of the warm and cold baths, and is admirably adapted for the purposes of cleanliness, and promoting the healthy action of the skin. It is frequently employed as a preparative to cold bathing.

X. The warm bath has a temperature of from 92° to 100° Fahr., or about that of the human body.
Remarks. The warm bath is at once the most luxurious and effective mode of bathing, and if taken under proper restrictions, is highly conducive to health. If only on the grounds of personal cleanliness, this species of bathing has the highest claim on our attention. "The sensations attendant upon immersion in a warm bath are most delicious. Its effect is, first to increase the circulation of the blood, and to determine it to the skin; after a few minutes an agreeable and universal increase of heat is experienced; the face, and forehead generally, are soon bedewed with perspiration: a pleasing and prevailing calm is felt, mentally and physically; and after remaining in some 12 or 15 minutes, coming out and dressing, the refreshing feeling and consciousness of personal purity give rise to associations of the most happy character. The warm bath may be taken at any time during the day: it is perhaps better to employ it upon an empty stomach, or before a meal, rather than after one. The temperature should be from 98° to 100° ; the time of immersion should not exceed 15 minutes. The old idea that it is relaxing, is erroneous, except where persons remain in for hours, as some people do, or where it is taken too often."
The warm bath, in a medical point of view, is especially adapted to general torpor of the system, liver and bowel complaints, hypochondriasis, hysterical affections, morbid suppressions, dry skin, nearly all cutaneous and nervous diseases, chronic rheumatism, &c. As a tonic or stimulant after excessive fatigue, great mental excitement, or physical exertion, it is unequalled, and furnishes one of the most wholesome, and at the same time I
luxurious sources of refreshment we are acquainted with.

XI. The vapor-bath consists in vapor being admitted to the apartment, and thus not only is tha body immersed in it, but it is inhaled as well. It is used at different temperatures, known by the name of tepid, when the temperature varies from 90° to 100°; warm, when from 100° to 112°; and hot, from 110° to 130°; but when the vapor is not inhaled, the heat of the latter may be raised to 160°.

Remarks. The principal action of the vaporbath is to produce a copious diaphoresis. In fact, it is the most powerful diaphoretic agent known. It is a certain specific for a cold; and in all those eases wherein warm bathing is recommended, the vapor-bath ranks highest. It constitutes the most powerful pharmaceutical remedy existent: combined with friction, or shampooing, its utility in cases requiring an additional action, as in contracted muscles, tendons, &c, is much increased; "and instances are numerous, where the lame have thrown aside their crutches, and the bedridden have again mixed with the world, after a few applications of this bath." "It is no uncommon thing to hear a patient start and shriek with agony before entering the bath, and to receive his congratulations and thanks on his coming out: they will oftentimes exclaim,—' It is wonderful! I could not have believed it—/ am well—I can walk—-I can jump .''"
The vapor-bath is administered in chronic rheumatism, stiff joints, long-continued indigestion, gout, lumbago, sciatica, scrofulous swellings, fever, skiu diseases, &c, but should be avoided in acute inflammations, and for persons of a very full and excitable habit of body.

XII. The shower-bath. This may be regarded as a modification of the cold bath or plunge bath, and its effects are similar. The cold shower-bath is however less alarming to nervous persons, and less liable to produce cramp, than cold immersion: it may be considered as the best and safest mode of cold bathing, and is recommended in many nervous complaints. It has also afforded relief in some cases of insanity.

Where the saving of expense is an object, or a regular shower-bath is not to be procured, a large common watering-pot filled with cold water may be used as a substitute. Let the patient sit undressed upon a stool, which may be placed in a large tub, and pour the water from the pot over the head, face, neck, shoulders, and all parts of the body, progressively down to the feet, until the whole has been thoroughly wetted.