Monday, May 4, 2015

1895 Rural House Plans

For the next few weeks I'm going to be posting house plans from 1895 for Rural homes. Note that there is no bathroom in these plans because they were designed for a rural setting.

House Plans 1

House Plans 2

Saturday, May 2, 2015

Catfish Part 2

I decided to include this additional tidbit regarding the catfish. Hopefully you'll find this useful for your novels or general knowledge.

Here's a list of the various kinds of catfish and some descriptions about them.

The Common Catfish

The Brown Catfish
Description. Head flattened, with a granular surface above; its length compared to the total length, is as one to four and a half. The upper jaw slightly the longest. Lateral line slightly concave under the dorsal fin, and then straight. Breadth of the head slightly less than its length. Eyes small, two-tenths of an inch in diameter, and far apart. Nostrils double; the posterior pair half an inch apart, patent, oval, with an erectile cirrus on their anterior margins ; the anterior pair subtubular, and near the edge of the jaws. A long cirrus, stout and fleshy at its base, at each angle of the jaws, and an inch and a half long. A pair of slender cirri 0-6 long, on the summit of the head; four others under the lower jaw, arranged in a curved line an inch in extent; the internal pair shortest, and all slender. Humeral bone with a blunt spine over the pectoral, and a short obtuse angular projection beneath. Mouth very ample and dilatable. A band of small recurved teeth in each jaw, broadest in the centre, and diminishing to a point on the sides. Vomer and palatines smooth. Two rounded patches of minute recurved teeth in the upper pharyngeals; opposite to them, a few scattering minute teeth.
The dorsal fin commences half an inch posterior to a point vertical to the origin of the peetorals, subquadrate, and a little more than an inch high. Its first ray is a robust spine, slightly serrated on its posterior margin, and much shorter than the remaining rays. Adipose fin rounded, and opposite the termination of the anal fin. Pectorals placed low down, and in advance of the posterior angle of the opercle; its spine stout and pointed, with its anterior and posterior margins serrated, and its upper and under surfaces corrugated: the spine is shorter than the four following rays. Ventrals somewhat pointed, and originate at a point three-tenths of an inch behind the end of the first dorsal. Anal fin with seventeen rays, an inch and a half long, and six-tenths of an inch high. Caudal fin slightly but distinctly emarginate ; the accessory rays indistinct. Vent with a double orifice.
Color. A uniform dusky brown above, approaching to black ; beneath bluish white. Fins and cirri black ; the former tinged with red.

The Black Catfish
Characteristics. Black. Adipose dorsal long and slender; the rays of the fins passing beyond the membrane. Caudal emarginate, ro'und, with numerous accessory rays. Length four to eight inches.
Description. Surface smooth and sealeless. Lateral line distinct, nearly straight, slightly convex under the dorsal fin. Head depressed, sloping. The barbels, in number and arrangement, resemble those of the preceding species. Lips fleshy, with minute punctures. Teeth in the jaws minute, long, conical and crowded. Tongue smooth. Humeral bone with a long concealed spine above the pectoral, and a short blunt rudimentary process directed downward at the upper angle of the branchial aperture.
The dorsal fin higher than long, arising midway between the pectorals and ventrals; the first ray an acute triangular spine ; its anterior surfaces marked with oblique rugze or wrinkles ; its anterior edge smooth; a small accessory bone at its anterior base; six soft rays, the first and second longest. The adipose dorsal as far from the last rays of the first dorsal, as the anterior ray of that fin is from the end of the snout; long and slender, rounded, and laciniate at the tips. The pectoral fins nearly on the plane of the abdomen, and anterior to the upper angle of the branchial aperture, containing one spinous and seven branched rays: the spinous ray robust, triangular, slightly curved, with its anterior edge roughened, and its sides channelled as in the spine of the first dorsal; a small filamentous ray is connected with it, its posterior edges with decurved spines; the second, third and fourth rays somewhat longer than the spines. Ventrals small and feeble, pointed, their tips scarcely reaching the third anal ray; the third and fourth rays longest. Anal fin long; the first four successively longer, when they become subequal to the last four or five rays, when they gradually diminish in length. Caudal slightly emarginate, rounded at the tips.
Color. Deep black, occasionally blackish brown above and on the sides ; ashen grey beneath.

The Blue Catfish of Ohio and the Lakes.

The Yellow Catfish

The Channel Catfish

The Mud Catfish, recognized by the scarified and clouded appearance of its skin.

The small Black Bullhead of the northern streams and lakes.

Young Catfish, with the rudiments of an adipose fin.
Source: Reptiles & Amphibia ©1842

Bull-head. Black Catfish. Horned Pout. Small Catfish. Schuylkill Cat,
Adipose fin free posteriorly; head flat, wedge shaped; skin thick; branchiostegals, eight to eleven; dorsal fin higher than long, with six branched rays; lateral line incomplete; caudal fin truncate; color varies from nearly black to yellowish; anal fin about twenty-one rays. Length, 18 inches.
"This fine species is not frequently met with, and only in the rivers, where occasionally specimens are captured, associated with the following common species."

Long-jawed Cat. Common Catfish.
Lower jaw projects beyond the upper; head longer than broad and narrowed in front; profile steep and convex; color dark reddish or blackish; size of foregoing.
This is the most abundant species of the catfish found in the State. It is a lover of quiet waters, with a deep deposit of mud on the bottom of the stream. It would not be a misnomer to designate it as the ' mud ' catfish. They afford moderate sport to the angler, and, except in July and August, are a fair article of food. They are less abundant in the smaller creeks of the northern part of the State."
A. natalis, Le S., var. cupreus, Jord. (Silurus lividus, Raf.-, &c.) Yellow Cat. Chubby Cat.
Body stout, with large head; upper jaw projecting; color yellowish brown. This may possibly occur in the valley of the Delaware, but it is difficult to distinguish species so variable.

White Catfish. Channel Cat of the Potomac.
Body slender, compressed; head conical; branchiostegals eight to nine; six rays in dorsal fin; caudal deeply forked; mouth rather narrow, upper jaw longer; rays of anal fin about twentyone; pale olive bluish above and silvery below. Length, I8 inches.
Source: New Jersey State Documents ©1890

CATFISH
We do not now appreciate our several varieties of catfish. But coming generations will do so. The- fish is valuable for food. Some of the smaller varieties, living in running waters, being as delicate as any of our native fish. As is known to all our people, the catfish is extremely hardy and thrives in all our waters. To propagate him, it is only necessary to put the proper variety in waters suited to him, and then give such waters reasonable protection. The Mississippi river and its tributaries is the home of the catfish. The largest catfish of which I have authentic information, weighed 196 pounds, and was caught in the Mississippi, near St. Louis. My authority is M. B. Curtis, the oldest fish dealer of St. Louis. The largest catfish which came under my personal observation was caught in the Mississippi river, near St. Louis, in 1879, and was presented to Professor Spencer F. Baird, for the National Museum, by the Missouri Fish Commission. It weighed 150 pounds, and, when examined, proved to be an undescribed species. It has been named by Professors Jordan and Gilbert, lctal-ur'us pondero-sus—Bean—Great catfish. They think this variety of catfish attains a larger size than any other.
There are small varieties which never exceed two pounds in weight, and probably much less. The Missourian who visits the magnificent Fairmount Park of Philadelphia, is amused to read the signs on the little resturants by the roadside, “catfish and waffles," showing the dish to be a delicacy in the estimation of the inhabitants of the Quaker City. Catfish spawn in spring and summer. The eggs are deposited in lumps or masses, varying in size from a small marble to a hen’s egg. The spawn and young fry are carefully guarded by the parent fish until able to care for themselves. From experiments made by Col. Marshall McDonald, Assistant U. S. Fish Commissioner, at '1 Commissioner for Virginia, he concludes that the male acts as guar. . This care by the parent, and the formidable spines, or stickers, with which the catfish is armed. account for his ability to hold his own in our depleted waters. It is a veritable eXemplification of the “survival of the fittest.”
Source: Appendix to the House and Senate Journals ©1885


Friday, May 1, 2015

Catfish

Below are tidbits and recipes about the Catfish. It was a staple for many people and still is in some parts today.

A Report from the Fishing and Game Commissioners mentioned:
CATFISH.
A number of men engaged in cleaning out the Morris Canal impounded several thousand catfish, and these were secured by one of the wardens and placed in different waters in Sussex county.
In the Western States the channel catfish is much sought after, both for sport and the food it affords, its flesh being white, firm and sweet. The addition of this fish to the food-fish of the Delaware and other large bodies of water in this State would be very desirable, and consequently the Commission has made arrangements for securing a supply in the near future. A number of channel catfish have already been brought to the State, and have been placed in one of the reservoirs of the Passaic Water Company, in Paterson, where they are amply protected, and from whence it is hoped their progeny will be distributed to other parts of the State, although the Commission also expects to distribute a large number directly from the great lakes.
©1895

MR. THURMAN S CATFISH.
Once upon a time, when crowded about his presidential aspirations, Mr. Thurman replied: "I really have no ambition in that direction." A look of incredulity on erery face waithe only response. The judge took in these looks and related a little story. Said he: "One summer I was at the Oakland House, Maryland, spending a little vacation np In the cool mountain resion. We got to telling Ashing stories. I related something of my own experience when I was present and saw caught a catfish weighing ninety pounds. When 1 told the weight tbeie was a general laugb, and I was humorously awarded the prize for telling fish stories. I quietij remarked to my incredulous friends that I hoped soon to convince them of the correctness of my story, that la Western waters there were cattish of ninety pounds weight. When I returned to Columbus, I went to the leading restaurateur and instructed him to procure roe the largest catfish that could possiolv be secured. He reported in a few days that he had one. I walked over aud found an excellent specimen, weighing 75 pounds. I hid him boxed and carefully packed in ice, ami shipped him to my disbelieving friends at the Oakland. From the restaurateur I got all the recipes I could for catfish chowder, catfish steaks, stuffed catfish, roast, etc., and sent them on by mail. 1 telegraphed as follows: 'Skin your fish before you cook him,' a catfish's skin being so rank as to spoil the flesh when the fish is cooked with it on.' They got my telegram and were puzzled. When the box atrived, dripping from the melting ice, tbey were more puzzled. The letter, which arrived bv tbe same train as the fish, explained all They had a fine feast, and at it formally organized with a president and secretary, and passed tbe following resoluiion. which was sent me: '"Resolved, That the truth of Allen fi. Thurtnuu's statements should never be questionel; that his fish stories are alwavs absolutely true, especially his catfish stories." —Cleveland Press.
Source: Fishing Scraps ©1883

Shipping Tidbits:
The fish are then taken out and dressed and barreled for shipment. The dressing consists in cutting off the head, removing the viscera, and skinning the fish, after which it is washed, and then barreled with ice for shipment. The principal shipments are made to Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Colorado, and New Mexico.
Source: Congressional Serial Set ©1899

DO CATFISH AND EELS INTERBREED:
There is a party here who has made the remarkable statement that catfish and eels are one and the same species, one being male, the other female. It seems so ridiculous to me that I took the chances of denying it, and now I want some definite information. He says that neither catfish or eels will breed by themselves. While I know that where you find catfish you also find eels, still I am not prepared to believe such a remarkable statement. Please enlighten me.
Butte, Mont., October 28. * R. H. M.
Our first impression on receiving the above was that our esteemed correspondent was being guyed, but remembering how persistently an intelligent angling writer insisted that a fish known in his local waters as the eel-killer was a cross between the trout and the eel, we decided to give the query respectful attention. En passant, the eel-killer turned out to be the burbot, lake lawyer or ling (Lota maculosa). Yes, friend “R. H. M.,” the catfish and the eel are distinct fish. The latter, as a rule, breeds in brackish water and is of both sexes, albeit much discussion occurred some years ago as to its spawning habits and probable hermaphroditism. The catfish is not only of dual sex but is the best of parents, guarding its young until they are able to take care of them.
Source: The American Angler ©1888

Recipes:
Catfish Soup.
Three pounds of fish when they have been cleaned, skinned and beheaded; two cups of milk, heated, with a tiny bit of soda; two tablespoonfuls of prepared flour rubbed up with three of butter; two beaten eggs; two tablespoonfuls of minced parsley; three cups of cold water; pepper and salt.
Cover the fish with cold water and stew gently until the flesh slips easily from the bones; take from the fire, pick out and throw away the bones; chop the fish, strain the liquor in which it was boiled, and return all to the fire; as it boils, stir in floured butter, seasoning and parsley; boil two minutes; pour the scalding milk from another vessel over the eggs, turn into the tureen, add the fish-soup and serve. Line the tureen with Boston crackers, split, soaked in boiling milk and well-buttered before pouring the soup upon them. Pass sliced lemon with it.
Ladies Home Cook Book ©1896

Fried Cattish.—Catfish must be cooked quite fresh—if possible, directly out of the water. The larger ones are generally coarse and strong; the small-sized fish are the best. Wash and clean them, cut off their heads and tails, remove the upper part of the backbone near the shoulders, and score them along the back with deep gashes or incisions. Dredge them with flour, and fry them in plenty of lard, boiling fast when the catfish are put into the pan. Or you may fry them in the drippings or gravy saved from roast beef or veal. They are very nice dipped in a batter of beaten egg and grated bread-crumbs, or they may be done plain, though not in so nice a way, with Indian meal instead of bread-crumbs. Drain off the lard before you dish them. Touch each incision or cut very slightly with a little cayenne before they go to table.

Waffles and catfish are a famous dish at some eating-houses.
Mrs. Clarke's Cook Book ©1899

Baked Catfish
Take a. string of catfish—one fish for each person to be served; clean well, and cut down the center, and let stand in salt water for a while to draw out the blood. Dry them in a cloth, and then dip them in the yellows of eggs, and roll in cornmeal. Have a pan with plenty of fat, lay the fish in, and brown in the oven. In this style catfish are very rich. It is a fish having only the backbone to handle, and can be eaten without the trouble of small bones bothering. Catfish should not be less than six to eight inches in length. .
I Mrs. Alice L. Mendenhall, Kinmundy, Ill.
Source: The Journal of Agriculture Cook Book ©1894


Thursday, April 30, 2015

Frogs & Frog Legs

I can't say whether or not I'll ever eat frogs legs but I'm told by those who have that they are delicious. So, in honor of those who enjoy and who's characters enjoy here are some tidbits for cooking frogs.

FROGS.
Skin them as soon as possible. The hind legs are usually the only part used, although the back is good eating. Fry or broil the same as chickens—or fricassee them.
Source: Mrs. Owens Cook Book & Useful Household Information ©1884

FROG'S LEGS.
Both the bull frog and the green marsh frog are edible, but the latter is considered the more tender and delicate. The former has been introduced into France and is valued highly. In Germany all the muscular parts of the frog are used for food, but in France and America epicures are satisfied with the hind quarters. In Canada and some parts of the middle states, frogs are kept and fattened in preserves or farms adapted to this purpose, and the supply for the city markets comes chiefly from these sources.
Frog's legs are in season in some places the entire year, but they are at their best from June to October. They are of a gelatinous nature, and while not especially nourishing for a hard worker, they are easily digested by the invalid. It seems to be the proper thing to learn to like them, and since Americans have become accustomed to them as an article of food, the number consumed here is far in advance of that in other countries.
In the large city markets they may be found skinned and ready for cooking, but if you depend upon other sources for your supply, you may have to prepare them. This is all that is needed. With a very sharp knife cut through the outer skin downwards, and then turn the skin back and off as you would remove a glove, then cut off the skin and the toes. Rinse in cold water, drain and wipe dry.
Frog's Legs, Fried.
Leave them for three minutes in boiling water containing salt and lemon juice. Drain, wipe dry, dip in fritter batter and fry in deep fat.
Or, dip in beaten egg with milk, or in milk alone, and then in fine cracker or bread crumbs, wipe off the end of the bone, put them in a basket and fry until brown. Drain and decorate the bone with paper ruffles if you care to take the time for such work. Arrange them one overlapping the other around a mound of green peas.
Frog's Legs, Stewed.
Scald them, then put into fresh hot water to cover, with salt, pepper, parsley, bayleaf, lemon juice, and a little onion and carrot cooked in butter without coloring. Stew until tender, and the water reduced onehalf. Remove the legs, strain the liquor, heat again and add an equal amount of cream and a few mushrooms, cook two minutes longer, then pour it over the legs.
Frog's Legs a Ia Poulette.
Wash one dozen frog's legs and season with salt and pepper. Put them in a stew pan with two tablespoonfuls butter and cook very slowly for ten minutes, then add half a cup of water and one tablespoonful lemon juice, cover and simmer until tender. Remove the legs to a hot dish, add half a cup of cream to the liquor left in the pan, and when boiling, stir in quickly the yolks of two raw eggs slightly beaten, remove at once, continue stirring until thickened, then turn it over the legs. Serve on toast and garnish with crisp bacon.
Frog's Legs a la Creole.
Wash, drain, and season six pairs of legs, put them in a shallow dish, add juice of one lemon, and after an hour, put two ounces of butter in a stew pan, and one minced onion, one minced green pepper, and cook five minutes. Then put in the legs, cover closely and cook ten minutes. Add four ripe tomatoes, skinned and sliced, half a cup of mushrooms, cover again and cook until tender. Turn into a hot dish and garnish with toast points.
Source: Everyday Housekeeping ©1896

Wednesday, April 29, 2015

1883 Fashions

Below are excerpts from an article on fashions from Lett's Illustrated Household Magazine ©1883.

A very^ pretty spring costume is composed of faille and veiling of two Shades of grey. The skirt is of faille and has two pleated flounces edged with velvet, the tunic or upper skirt is in veiling, and is raised high at the sides, with long bows and ends of wide ribbon velvet, forming a pouf and graceful drapery at the back. The bodice is pointed back and front, and is edged with velvet, fastening down the back, under bows and ends.
Another walking dress is made of cashmere and satin merveilleux, in two shades of terra-cotta. The satin skirt is almost plain; a narrow kilted flounce is placed round the bottom, headed by a crossway band of cashmere, which is of the lightest shade. A draped tunic of cashmere reaches only half-way down the skirt, and falls in a large, loose pouf at the back. The bodice has a very small basque, and is pointed in the front and square at the back; a crossway band of satin, graduating to a point, is laid on the bodice in a V shape, terminating at the extreme point in front; the sleeves are short and quite plain. With this costume is worn a straw bonnet of terra-cotta colour, the broad brim lined with pink satin; a broad satin ribbon crosses the front, and is held at one side by a fancy buckle, falling thence in strings, and a large white feather droops gracefully over the back. A pretty dress for a child may be made of a fancy woollen material; the skirt is in very large pleats, across each of these is a band of ottoman silk, pointed at one end and confined by a steel or fancy buckle, the other end is concealed under the pleat. The jacket has the same trimming on each side and round the bottom, it is fastened to the waist, but from thence is open to display a long waistcoat, which comes half-way down the skirt, d la Louis XII. There are pockets at the side, square in shape, with bands of silk laid on, and sleeves, with square cuffs, trimmed to match.

The first figure illustrated has a skirt of brown cashmere, with a narrow kilted flounce at the edge. Over this is a long tunic, with large pattern of Indian pines embroidered in various colours, draped rather full at the back. The spring mantle is composed of ottoman silk, with plastron down the back in velvet. This is edged with a trimming laid in points towards the centre, and having at the outer end a jet bead or ornament. The points are square, and are trimmed with passementerie and jet ornaments to match the back, and on the shoulder is an ornament of silk cord and tassels. The straw bonnet of a lighter shade of colour than the dress, is profusely trimmed with flowers and foliage, and lias strings of broad satin ribbon.

The second costume is an indoor dress of faille and soft woollen veiling. The skirt is of faille, /raises ecrasees, it has two box-pleated flounces edged with ribbon velvet of a darker shade, the upper flounce is very wide, and is partly concealed by the tunic. This is made of the woollen fabric, and has an edging of embroidery turned up round it; it is raised very high at the sides, with loops and long ends of velvet, and falls in graceful poufs at the back. The bodice is open and pointed, short at the side and coat-shaped behind, a graduated piece of embroidery is placed at the edge of the bodice in front, where it is open to display a full waistcoat of faille, crossed by bands of velvet, fastened with silver or steel buckles. The sleeves are plain and have small embroidered cuffs.


They are mostly of coloured straw; white is scarcely seen. Mixtures of chenille and fancy straw, or of lace and jet, or gold, are admissible. The trimmings include every kind of ornament; flowers, birds, feathers, silk pompons, sparkling gold or silver thistles; and, lastly (this is quite a la mode in Paris), the tiny head of a cat, with collar of lace, in the folds of which are hid loops of narrow ribbon. The "Olivette" bonnet has bceu very successful.

Tuesday, April 28, 2015

Football

Continuing the tread of recreational sports, last week was bicycling. Today we'll concentrate on football. These remarks come from "Outdoors: A Book of Healthful Pleasures" ©1894

FOOT BALL
BY WALTER CAMP.
Secretary Advisory Committee Inter-Collegiate Foot Ball Association.
IN the bright, crisp days of late October, when the air has in it a bracing exhilaration that tempts one to almost any belief in athletic strength and prowess, when the wheelman finds not his endurance but the day too short, when even the horsa under the rider seems to gather power from the air he breathes, when the wonderful and bewitching autumn of the year has given all her wealth in lavish display of colors, then is the season of the sport of foot ball.
The game is a too sharp and sturdy one for the hot days of summer, and winter renders the ground unfit for the hard tumbles of the players; but during the two months of October and November, the season is at its height and the gridiron field is covered with the hardy young players.
It is now nearly twenty years since the Rugby Union game of our English cousins was introduced in this country. Previous to that time American foot ball amounted to but little. Some indiscriminate kicking and bunting, a very poor, mongrel attempt at the old Association style of play, was all that could be brought out here. No more than a few score people would come to a match, and even they would hardly find a reward for coming. To-day, thirty-five thousand psople will sit, unprotected, through the heaviest rainstorm to see the final match of the American Inter-collegiate season, while other matches draw ten or twenty thousand. Schools and colleges from Maine to California all have foot-ball teams, and wherever there are two rival schools, colleges, or universities within travelling distance of each other, there is now an annual foot-ball contest, fraught with the greatest intensity of interest. And for all this, foot ball is still an undeveloped sport. Each year brings forward new lines of skill and tactics, each season witnesses some marked advance in the play, and ffom the last match in November until the opening of the next season in September, the busy brains of captains, coaches, and players are studying up new strategies, unusual and brilliant manoeuvres, many of which, it is true, come to naught when put to the test, but there are always a few of the best that succeed beyond all expectations and mark out still further lines of progress.
The fundamental theory of the game "is of the simplest character. Two teams of eleven men each meet upon a field 330 feet long and 160 feet wide, and each team endeavors to put the ball over the goal, or past the goal line of the opponents. The ball may be kicked, carried, or passed by the players, but by only the two former methods can it be advanced, for all passing or throwing the ball must be directly across the field or else toward the players' own goal and not toward the goal of the opponents. There are but two scoring places and those are at the ends of the field, and called the goal lines. They are the end boundaries and in the centre of each stands the goal itself, composed of two upright posts, set eighteen and a half feet apart and crossed by a bar at a height of ten feet from the ground. To score a goal the ball must be kicked by the player over this bar and between the two posts which project above it. There is but one kind of a kick that cannot score a goal, and that is what is technically termed a "punt." In a punt the kicker drops the ball from his hands and kicks it before it touches the ground. This style of kick is the most common one for advancing the ball in the field of play, but when a team is near enough to try for a goal their kickers either attempt a drop kick, that is, kicking the ball just as it rises from the ground on the bound, or a place kick, where a second player holds it on the ground for another to kick. In addition to kicking goals, points may be scored by gaining touch-downs. These are of two kinds, ordinary touch-downs and safeties. The former are made by carrying the ball over, or securing it behind the line of the enemy's goal, the latter are made by members of a hard pressed side carrying the ball behind their own goal line as a measure of protection. An ordinary touch-down entitles the side making it to a try at the opponent's goal by a place kick, but, even though the kick be unsuccessful, the touchdown itself counts four points. If the goal be kicked the two together count six points. A goal kicked in any other way than from a touch-down, counts but five points. Finally, a safety counts two points for the opponents; and the entire match is decided by the number of points scored in two halves of forty-five minutes each. The laws under which the game is played may be summed up briefly as follows : —
Any player may run with or kick the ball, and any opponent may seize him when he has the ball in his possession and stop him or try to secure the ball. The only limitation to a player's running with the ball or kicking it, is, that he must have received it when '.' on side," that is, without being between the ball and the opponent's goal. The only limitations to the tacklers are that they must not seize the runner below the knees or trip him. There are two judges under whose rulings the game is played, one known as the umpire, who sees that the players are guilty of no unfair acts, and the other called th2 referee, who judges the position and progress of the ball. The game is begun by placing the ball in the centre of the field, in the possession of one of the teams, [decided by toss,] and then follows the attempt to advance the ball either by kicks or runs. In order to prevent a side continually holding the ball and never relinquishing it to the opponents, the rules provide that whenever a man is caught and held with the ball, his side must at once place the ball on the ground and make another attempt to advance it. If in three of these attempts they have not gained five yards, or lost twenty, they must, either by kicking the ball or surrendering it, give the other side a chance to try their skill at advancing it.
The remarkable development of the game in America has rendered the division of players even more specific than in England. The line in front, consisting usually of seven men, is called the rush line, or forwards, while the man who stands just behind this line and passes the ball for a kick or run, is termed the quarter back. Next behind him are two half backs and a back or goal tend. The forwards are still further classified as ends, tackles, guards, and centre, as will be seen by reference to the accompanying diagram.
The exercise of foot ball is a thoroughly general one, calling upon almost every muscle in the body to bear its share, and for this reason all forms of out-door sport, cycling, riding, swimming, rowing, and tennis are excellent preparation for foot ball, as foot ball in its turn is for the others. In universities where both rowing and foot ball are cultivated, it is no unusual thing to find several of the crew men foot-ball players as well. Base ball and track athletics also furnish their quota to make up the foot-ball team. The prime requisite for a foot-ball man is soundness, and the wonderful "all 'round" development attained by the members of teams, as shown by the measurements taken by those interested in physical culture, has been something remarkable. That element known as pluck must enter largely into the make-up of anyone desiring to make a great success of competitive work in any branch of athletics, and perhaps ho place gives a better opportunity for the cultivation as well as the display of this attribute than the foot-ball field, where almost every moment brings forward some new and unexpected emergency to be faced, until quick thought and ready action come to be the rule rather than the exception.
The best advice to give to a man who desires to become a successful player is, to begin by putting himself in good physical condition, by engaging in any or all of the out-door sports of the summer season, being careful, however, not to overdo the matter by running any risks of overtraining, which is rather more liable to result from immoderate fatigue in the heat of summer than later in the year. In the early fall the teams begin work upon the field and the candidate for honors, who has spent some little of his summer in keeping in condition, at once finds himself better able to endure the violent exercise than those of his fellows who have devoted the summer to high living and little exercise. The man who tries foot ball for the first time is now, thanks to the popularity of the sport even among the younger schools and classes, so unusual, that one need only say to him, "Look on for a week, ask questions, and then put on a canvass jacket." To those who have had some experience, but who are ready to go up higher, to young school boys who want to get on the first team from the second, to preparatory school graduates just entering college who want to get on the freshman team, or to those who have aspirations for the 'Varsity, let me say that nothing will bring you so close to the object of your desires as-making a study of the particular position you wish to fill. A man must not be content with going through the daily routine of practice, doing merely what he has seen others do before him, thinking of none but the ordinary regulation work. He must begin by thinking, after his day of practice, just what plays were made during which he stood unoccupied, and lending no assistance. Then he must ask himself the question whether, without jeopardizing the play in any way, he could not perform some act that would add to its efficiency. For instance, a man is playing the position of left tackle, and the play has been that of sending the half back through between right end and tackle. As left tackle the mal* has merely blocked his opponent, and then psrhaps taken a step or two up the field, and looked on open-mouthed to see his runner making a fine gain on the right, but eventually brought down by the opposing full back. It occurs to the player who is really ambitious and thoughtful, that there was a possibility of the left tackle checking his man, and then, by fast running, getting over to the spot where the full back stopped the runner, and interfering so that the run might have yielded a touch-down.

Monday, April 27, 2015

1883 Architecture House Plans

Below are two images from Lett's Illustrated Household Magazine ©1883. In the article the author talks about having previously discussed the lower level so all we have here is the upper floor plan and the drawing of the front of the house. Personally, I love running across floor plans like this to help me set the stage for a location in a book. Note the dressing room.



Here's a link to an earlier post with 1871 House Plans

Friday, April 24, 2015

Poisons for roaches, moths and bed bugs.

Here are three poisons to kill pesty bugs in the home. They can be found in Mrs. Owens' Cook Book and Useful Household Hints ©1884

ROACHES.
Equal parts of borax and white sugar will drive away roaches or Croton bugs.
MOTHS.
Put salt under the edges of carpets when tacked down.
BED-BUG POISON.
Mrs. R. W Louis, Chicago.
Six ounces corrosive sublimate, 6 ounces camphor gum, 1 pt. spirits turpentine; shake well, mix; let stand a day. Shake before using.

Below are three links to previous posts regarding poisons:
Poisons & Remedies

Poisoning by Lemon Meringue Pie

Poisons

Thursday, April 23, 2015

Omelets

This is continuing the Egg Recipes from last week found in Mrs. Owens New Cook Book ©1897

OMELETS.
EGG OMELETS. OTHER VARIETIES.
NoTE-lf possible keep one pan for omelets alone.
PLAIN OMELETS—4 Eggs. Four eggs, $ cup of milk and 1 teaspoon flour. Beat the flour with a little of the milk, and fill the cup with milk till half full. Then put this mixture and the 4 eggs together, just sufficiently to break the Quaking. OMELET. Souffle.
yolks, but not to beat them. Pour this into a hot and well-buttered frying pan and cover it. When it begins to cook, roll it over and over like a jelly-roll, and as soon as cooked, turn it out on a hot platter with as little handling as possible.
QUAKING OMELET—4 Eggs. Four eggs, 1 tablespoon milk, pinch of pepper and scant half teaspoon salt. Whip the whites into a stiff froth and place in a pan of boiling water and let cook until firm. In the meantime beat the yolks and milk together and turn into a hot frying pan, which has been well buttered, sprinkle on salt and pepper, and set the frying pan in the oven, and let remain 6 minutes. Carefully dish the whites, without breaking them, on to a hot dish, and turn the yolks out on them exactly in the center, leaving a white rim all around, and you have a pretty dish.
OMELET WITH BAKING POWDER.
Mrs. T. A. Evoy, Chicago.
2 heaping teaspoons corn starch. 2 level teaspoons baking powder. 1 cup milk. 4 eggs, pepper, salt and celery salt.
Beat all together and put into hot bacon fat in spider. Cover and cook slowly.
OMELETS—6 Eggs.
Katherine Gorman, Clinton, Illinois.
6 eggs beaten separately. Beat a large teaspoon of flour with the yolks, add a little salt, then the whites and k cup milk. Have the skillet hot and buttered, pour in the mixture and let stand on top of stove 10 minutes then put in the oven and bake 15 minutes.
BAKED OMELET—8 Eggs.
Emogene Mather (Mrs. W. B.), Chicago. 8 fresh eggs beaten separately, 1 cup milk, 2 tablespoons flour, 1 tablespoon melted butter, 1 teaspoon salt. Thoroughly beat yolks then add salt, flour and milk, and lastly the beaten whites; stir lightly. Bake 25 minutes and serve at once in baking dish.
OMELET SOUFFLE. Beat the yolks of 6 eggs light, add $ teaspoon lemon juice, a bit of grated peel and nutmeg, and $ teaspoon sugar. Beat well and add lightly 5 tablespoons cream. Butter the omelet pan, heat, pour in the mixture, and stir in lightly the well-beaten whites. Cook 5 or 6 Apple. OMELET. Codfish.
minutes in a quick oven. Turn upside down on a hot plate and serve instantly.
OTHER VARIETIES OF OMELETS.
APPLE OMELET. Pare and stew 4 large tart apples and rub through a sieve. While hot add a tablespoon butter, $ cup sugar (heaping), 1 teaspoon vanilla and a grating of nutmeg. Whip whites and yolks of 4 eggs separately and add when apples are cold, folding in the whites the last thing. Pour into a buttered pudding dish and bake only until delicately browned.
ASPARAGUS OMELET. Boil 2 whole bunches of asparagus for 20 minutes. Remove the tender tops and put into a buttered baking dish. Season with pepper and salt and dots of butter. Beat 4 eggs with 1 tablespoon melted butter, a little salt and pepper, and pour over the asparagus. Bake 8 minutes in a quick oven and serve hot.
BREAD OMELET.
Mrs. Z. B. Glynn, East Boston, Mass. Put bread crumbs into a saucepan with cream or milk; salt and pepper. When the bread has absorbed the cream, break in as many eggs as will suffice for the meal, and fry as omelet.
CAULIFLOWER OMELET.
1 cup cold boiled cauliflower chopped fine and mixed with 4 eggs and 1 teaspoon corn starch. Cook as other omelets in buttered frying pan.
CHEESE OMELET. 4 eggs, 4 tablespoons milk, 2 tablespoons grated cheese, salt and pepper. Separate whites and yolks. Beat whites stiff, add the yolks and seasoning, then the milk, then the cheese; pour into the omelet pan. Have a platter warm for omelets, otherwise they will shrink or fall.
CODFISH OMELET. Pick up £ cup of salt codfish and let the water run on it a short time to freshen sufficiently. Put into a frying pan with 1 heaping tablespoon butter. Beat 4 eggs very light and add. As soon as partly Corn. OMELET. Meat.
set fold over and place in hot oven for 5 minutes. This may be served with cream sauce, but is good without.
CORN OMELET. Take cold boiled sweet corn, cut from the cob. For a cup full take 6 eggs, beat, add 6 tablespoons milk, the cup of corn, 1 teaspoon salt, \ saltspoon pepper; mix all together and cook in butter as any other omelet.
CRAB OMELET.
Florence R. Sheridan, Mobile, Ala.
Boil $ dozen crabs and pick out the meat, to which add 3 eggs beaten, 2 tablespoons cracker dust, a little chopped onion, parsley, butter, salt and pepper. Have a pan with butter very hot, in which drop the mixture in spoonsful and fry a light brown. Canned crabs make delightful omelet also.
HAM OMELET.
Mrs. Z. B. Glynn, East Boston, Mass.
2 eggs. 4 tablespoons butter.
2 tablespoons minced ham, lean. Pinch of pepper.
Fry the ham 2 minutes in a little butter; then mix all togetner and proceed as with a plain omelet. Serve very hot. Lean bacon or tongue will answer equally as well, but should be slightly cooked previous to mixing.
ORANGE OMELET. Three eggs, a teaspoon of orange juice, and same of grated orange rind. Beat the yolks and whites separately, then add carefully together and proceed as for plain omelet.
RICE OMELET. Mix 1 cup boiled rice with 1 cup milk; add 1 tablespoon butter, a little salt, and 3 well beaten eggs. Cook as an ordinary omelet. DRIED BEEF OMELET. Mince £ pound dried beef fine, beat up 4 eggs and stir into the beef. Put in the skillet a tablespoon of butter and turn the mixture in, stirring until the eggs scramble. Serve hot with garnish of celery or parsley.
MEAT OMELET. Mince up any cold pieces of meat, add a few crumbs of bread or crackers, and enough beaten egg to bind them together. Season Mushroom. OMELET. Oyster.
well and pour into a well-buttered frying pan. If it is difficult to turn it whole, a hot shovel may be held over the top until it is browned. MUSHROOM OMELET.
Twelve large mushrooms, wash and peel. Remove the stems and mince them fine, adding 3 beaten eggs. Season with salt and pepper and a pinch of cayenne and pour the mixture over the mushrooms. Put a tablespoon of butter in a frying pan and dip a spoonful at a time into it, being careful that a whole mushroom is in each spoon and fully encased in the mixture of egg and minced stems. They may be turned or not as preferred. When dished for the table they should be kept separate and one served to each person.
OYSTER OMELET.
One dozen large fresh oysters chopped into small pieces, £ teaspoon salt sprinkled on them, and then let stand in their own liquor hour. Beat 6 eggs, separately. Add to the yolks a tablespoon of rich cream, a little pepper and salt, and then lightly stir in the whites. Put 2 tablespoons butter into a hot frying pan. When it is melted and begins to fry, pour in your egg mixture and as quickly as possible add the oysters. Do not stir, but with a broad-bladed omelet knife lift the omelet as the eggs set from the bottom of the pan, to prevent scorching. In 5 minutes it will be done. Place a hot dish, bottom upward, over the omelet, and dexterously turn the pan over with the brown side uppermost upon the dish. Eat without delay.

Wednesday, April 22, 2015

1862 Fashions

Here are a few examples of some women and children fashions from 1862 resources.

Tuesday, April 21, 2015

Terrestrial Flight

The term had me looking it up so you'll find some information below are some tidbits about recreational sports from a book titled "Outdoors: A Book of Healthful Pleasure" ©1894 Enjoy the thoughts from the time about exercise and recreation.

The lazy Washington atmosphare, which seems to have been imported from the Land of the Lotus Eaters, and which affects everybody on foot, from the sable piccaniny to the Cabinet officer, is powerless to influence the rider on the steel horse. I forget how many bicycles are owned in Washington, though I did take the trouble to ask; but it appears at times as if everybody must own one. The broad, straight streets, smooth with polished asphalt, are swimming with shining wheels, following, passing, crossing, approaching, vanishing, gliding, all lightness, noiselessness, and speed. They stream to and fro in glaring currents, and no single rider can hold your eye but for an instant, but they are always coming, always going, and spin in continuous succession along thsir soundless paths, swift as birds, and with no more apparent effort, though their elastic tires never leave the solid surface of the planet.
Then terrestrial flyers are not restricted to sex, age, or occupation. If there are not, at present, as many women as men, the number of the former is constantly increasing; and a woman looks so graceful on a bicycle that the aesthetic instincts of the sex, no less than its good sense and love of movement, will aid in urging them to the saddle. The Washington Department clerks are almost all members of the steel cavalry division; their unwearying steeds enable them to stay so much* later at their breakfast, and so much earlier at their dinner; and at the journey's end there is no stable to hire, no hostler to fee, no fodder to provide. How much salary, how much lassitude, how much dyspepsia and low spirits do these tense, economic racers save in a twelvemonth ?" Post equitum sedet atra cura" says Horace; but I doubt if dull care often overtakes the airy sweep of the bicycler. His foot is on the pedal: he is the author of his own flights, and he can regulate it to suit his mood.
The small boy and the elderly gentleman, the tradesman and ths manabout-town, the seamstress and she for whom the seamstress works, all mingle with equal propriety and enjoyment in the wheeling lists. Bicycling is a freemasonry, broader in its membership than any other, save human nature itself. The man of brawn and the man of brains are at one in the saddle. Youth and age alike can do their mile in three minutes or under. The "winning wave, deserving note, in the tempestuous petticoat," is never more winning than when it whispers past you on the wheel. A woman on horseback, in a trim riding-habit, is an alluring sight; but we miss one important feature ■— the rhythmic grace of motion, which nothing but the bicycle affords. The entire pose shows the figure to the best advantage; and the slight, unconscious swayings of the body to maintain the balance imparts an element of life to the spectacle which is more fascinating than the most studied art of mere attitude.
But it would be omitting an important factor in the combination which has made the bicycle so universally popular, to ascribe its success to its practical business utility and to its faculty of making its riders look well. It is, above all, the solution of a problem which has puzzled hygienists and physical culturists for many years. The modern gospel of physical culture has been preached sinca before i860; and certainly, the multiplication since that revived of gymnasiums, of athletic clubs, of out-door sports, and of athletes, is evidence that it has not been preached in vain. Probably a majority of college-bred young men have made more or less practical acquaintance with bodily exercise. During their college career they attended the gymnasium, rowed, played base ball or foot ball, or took part in athletic games. In after life, a fair percentage of them kapt up their practise for a time; but, as a general rule, the business occupation of life, or other business, led them to discontinue their active habits soon after reaching their thirtieth year ; thenceforward they "took things easy," and rapidly developed portly abdomens, short breath, and sluggish circulation. This is especially noticeable in men who have been prominent in feats of strength and endurance while their athletic life lasted. The more acute their enthusiasm, the sooner it seems to exhaust itself. Some few persistent individuals, however, who have always done enough and never too much, keep up a moderate activity till past forty, fifty, and even sixty, and these retain their health, their vigor, and their figures till near the end.
Now, it is a physiological fact that rational exercise, constant, but not excessive, is never so beneficial and necessary as between the thirty-fifth and the fiftieth years. During the ebullient season of youth, our bodies instinctively crave to work off their superfluous animation; but later on, physical indolence supervives, and money-making pursuits seem to afford an excuse for the indulgence thereof. But, whereas vitality is abundant in youth, even when not artificially reinforced, the opposite is the case in age. As years accumulate, we must needs do something to keep the pot of life boiling. It need not be much, but it must be something; otherwise the penalties —■ dyspepsia, palpitation, asthma, nervous prostration — are tolerably sure to be inflicted. The conditions of our intellectual and business occupations are too arduous and exhausting to be endured with impunity (save in the case of exceptionally fine organizations) unless they are counteracted by deep breathing and systematized muscular movements.
These facts have been often repeated, and are widely accepted. But the truth is, it is not good advice that we lack, but the stimulus that shall prompt us to follow it. A man or woman may be assured that a certain nostrum, taken regularly, will give him or her health and long life; and he or she may know the statement to be true. Nevertheless, if the nostrum in question be nauseating to the taste, or involves much trouble to procure, the patient will take advantage of any specious pretext to avoid taking it; and the result will be that, for the parson concerned, the nostrum might as well be non-existent. The situation is the same with regard to bodily exercise. Unless it be administered in an attractive form, it will be neglected. In youth the competition and solid pleasure of out-door games, and even of gymnastic contests of a more precise and scientific kind, are sufficient to enlist participants. But, as we grow older, we perforce retire from such contests and must then do our work alone, or not at all. But who wants to play ball, or run races, or lift dumbbells, or practise leaping, alone by himself, after the hair has begun to thin on his temples? Who will practise calisthenic movements in the solitude of his chamber? Who, even should his geographical situation permit it, will set out to row a couple of miles out and back, for the mere hygienic advantage of the exertion? Even walking is too monotonous for the majority of temperaments, except a definite material goal be in view. It is true that a few of the faithful here and there will do all these things, in spite of spite: but their number is so small that, for purposes of argument, they cannot be considered.

Monday, April 20, 2015

Americanism or American Slang

Quite a while ago I posted various chapters on Americanisms or Slang. Today's post is an index for all of the posts.

Starting with the Letter A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q-R

S Part 1

S Part 2

T

U

V

W

Y

There were no X's or Z's.

Friday, April 17, 2015

American House Plans

I found this tidbit on an American House from an English publication titled "The Choice of a Dwelling." It gives a detail description along with some basic floor plans.

This common disposition of the plan of an American house is not without useful application at home; plans are here offered (illustration No. i) of one erected by the author in Philadelphia during a residence in the United States, which possesses the most desirable of the features above detailed.
The plot was 25 feet frontage by 100 feet in depth, the invariable area devoted to what is called a "city lot."
The extreme depth on the basement and principal floors is 78 feet, including the piazza, and of the bed-room floors (of which there are three) 50 feet.
In the basement the dining-room is 20 feet wide by 25 deep, and is octagonal, the corners being cut off to obtain more space for the room by curtailing the passage (which is only used by the servants and tradesmen coming to the house), and at the same time not to contract the doorway and its side lights. A fire-proof safe occupies one of the front corners, and from another a door opens into a large private store-closet. The other portions of the plan follow the general description previously given. Servants' bathroom and water-closet are provided on this floor.
The principal floor comprises two long rooms, each 25 by 15 ft. 6 inches, with columns between; the extension or tea-room in the rear, and back of all, the enclosed piazza breast, and with Venetian blinds working in grooves between the pillars that support the over-hanging roof. Between the end of the reception-rooms and the rear apartments, are wide sliding glazed doors, which, when opened, do not show, the opening extending nearly to the cornice. There is at the end of the hall a serving room with lift to a closet below, for use in entertaining company.
The bedroom plan represents two large bed chambers, back and front, with dressing-closets between, lighted by a well, and at each end of the hall small rooms, that in front being a single room, and in the rear, a general bath-room and water-closet. Each floor is similarly arranged. The dressing-closets are very completely fitted; on the right are wide drawers, and above are wardrobes, but of full size and with every contrivance that ingenuity can devise for hanging and placing dresses; upon the left is a bath with shower over, and a marble wash basin; a large cheval glass forms part of the fittings.
§ 296. Cost.
The cost of this residence, built very substantially, finished throughout with hard polished woods, and fitted with heating and ventilating apparatus, hot and cold water to every dressing-room, gas pipes, speaking-tubes, &c, throughout, the exterior faced with cut stone, the floors all double—in fact built in the best manner, and of the best materials—was about ^7000 of English money, the land upon which it stood being worth then about ^2500. At the present time I learn the house and ground are worth nearly ^16,000, the great increase being due principally to the rise in value of the land.
§ 297. Features worthy of adoption.
Some features of this, and similar American plans, are worth introduction into our London buildings; the octagonal planning of the dining-room, giving as it does so fair a space for the front door, removes a frequent objection that builders of small houses are compelled to devote a verynarrow allowance to the entrance passage.

Thursday, April 16, 2015

How to Cook Eggs

Below are 19th Century Recipes and information on how to cook eggs from Mrs. Owens New Cook Book ©1897 Omelets will be in another post.

TO BOIL EGGS.
Have the water far below the boiling point. At 180 degrees the albumen will become solid and white. If at 212 it will become shrunken and tough.
TO SERVE HARD BOILED EGGS. Remove shells and if not ready to serve at once drop them into hot water, a little salted. Place them on a layer of lettuce, with a few leaves over them. Pretty and appetizing.
Boiled. EGGS. To Poach.
BOILED EGGS.
Use a wire egg-boiler for boiling eggs; 3 minutes cooks the white about right for soft-boiled eggs. If put into cold water and let remain to a boiling point, they are cooked more evenly than by plunging into hot water at first. And it is further recommended to pour boiling water on the eggs and set the vessel on the hearth for 5 minutes.
Another method is to put eggs into boiling water, set back and let remain in water for 10 minutes.
ENGLISH BOILED EGGS. Put eggs into cold water and when it begins to boil, let boil just 2 minutes.
SCRAMBLED EGGS. Put a tablespoon of butter in a frying pan. When hot put in the requisite number of eggs beaten lightly. Pepper and salt them, and add $ cup of milk to a dozen eggs. Stir constantly, and as soon as they begin to set, take off and pour out. They must not be hard. EGGS SCRAMBLED IN MILK.
Lydia Avery Coonley, Chicago. Eggs beaten up with milk and scrambled in a dish set in a dish of water, make a pleasant variety. Use salt, but no butter.
SCRAMBLED EGGS IN BREAD CASE.
C. R. Schrapps, St. Louis. Take an even brick-shaped loaf of bread, cut the top off. Take a sharp knife and cut out the crumb of the loaf evenly, leaving the crust, ends, sides and bottom. Immerse both case and cover in hot fat and fry a nice brown, and drain well. In the meantime prepare scrambled eggs in the ordinary manner sufficient for the meal, and put into the hot bread case, cover with the hot cover and place on a platter. Dish with a spoon from the case the same as from a platter or tureen. After the eggs are gone the fried bread may be served in convenient pieces. Cooked asparagus placed on the eggs is a nice accompaninent.
TO POACH EGGS.
Mrs. W. A. Dickerman, Marseilles, Ill. Let the water come nearly to boiling heat, break the eggs in carefully and be sure that the water covers them, put a close cover on the sauce pan and cook until sufficiently done, and they will skim out very full and white. It will take but 2 or 3 minutes.
To Fry. EGGS. Panned.
TO FRY EGGS. Break the eggs into hot fat in the frying pan, cover closely and cook until done—perhaps 5 minutes, or butter gem irons and break an egg in each one, set in the oven, after seasoning. Will cook in a very short time.
FRIED HAM AND EGGS. Freshen the ham, if it requires it, by putting it on the stove in cold water, and pouring off as soon as it comes to a scald. Fry the ham in its own fat, then fry the eggs afterward in the same. Dish up on the same platter.
BROILED HAM AND EGGS. Broil thin slices of ham. Put a bit of butter on each slice when done. Poach the eggs in water, and lay one neatly on each piece of ham.
STEAMED EGGS.
Butter a tin plate and break in your eggs. Set in a steamer, place over a kettle of boiling water and steam till the whites are cooked . If broken into buttered patty pans they look nicer, by keeping their forms better. Or still better, if broken into egg cups and steamed until done, they are very nice. Cooked in this way, there is nothing of their flavor lost.
BAKED EGGS.
Take a large platter. Break on it as many eggs as you need for your meal, sprinkle over with salt, pepper and lumps of butter. Set in the oven, and in about 5 minutes the whites will be set and the eggs sufficiently cooked. A handy way on washing or ironing days, when the top of the stove is all in use.
EGG PYRAMIDS. Mrs. H. B. Clark, Pulaski, N. Y. Take 4 eggs, beat whites to a stiff froth, salt a little, butter the platter, put whites on in spoonsful. Make a hollow in each center and put a whole yolk in, salt and pepper and put a bit of butter on each one. Set into the oven and bake until a delicate brown.
PANNED EGGS. Make a minced meat of chopped ham, fine bread crumbs, pepper, salt and some melted butter. Moisten with milk to a soft paste, and Scalloped. EGGS. Fricasseed.
half fill some patty pans with the mixture. Break an egg carefully upon the top of each. Dust with pepper and salt, and sprinkle some finely-powdered cracker over all. Set in the oven and bake about 8 minutes and serve at once.
SCALLOPED EGGS. Prepare a cup of thick drawn-butter gravy, and a dozen hardboiled eggs. Butter a pudding dish and place in it a layer of fine bread crumbs moistened with milk or broth. Add 2 beaten eggs to the drawn butter. Cut the boiled eggs in slices, dip each slice in gravy and place in layers upon the bread crumbs. Sprinkle these with cold meat or fowl minced fine. Repeat the layers and put over all a covering of sifted bread crumbs. Heat well through in a moderate oven.
EGGS WITH TOMATO SAUCE. Boil 6 eggs hard and divide lengthwise. Pour over them a pint of tomato sauce. Serve hot.
RUGBY EGGS.
Isadore P. Taylor (Mrs. H. S.) Kenilworth, Ill. $ can of tomatoes, stewed, 1 small onion chopped fine, 1 small teaspoon corn starch, and butter size of egg. Cook 6 minutes, add salt and pepper (chopped parsley if desired) then add 5 well beaten eggs very slowly. When the mixture is as thick as thick cream, pour over buttered toast and serve immediately.
EGGS al a CREME. Boil 12 eggs hard, cut in slices and put in a baking dish with grated bread crumbs, pepper and salt. Make a cream sauce of a pint of cream or milk, add chopped parsley and a bit of onion and nutmeg. Pour over the eggs, sprinkle with crumbs and brown in a well heated oven.
SHAKER EGGS. Boil 4 minutes, take out, and as soon as cool enough to handle remove the shells, keep the eggs whole. Dop in a covered dish and dress with pepper, salt and sweet cream. To 6 eggs allow ^ cup cream. FRICASSEED EGGS. Boil 6 eggs hard, cut crosswise and remove yolks; mash the yolks with a little minced cold tongue or ham or fowl, a little butter and Swiss. EGGS. Sur Le Plat or Shirred.
made mustard and parsley. Fill the whites and set them in a covered dish. Have some broth ready and heat to boiling, and add 3 tablespoons cream to each cup of broth. Boil up, pour hot over the eggs, let stand covered for 5 minutes and serve at once.
SWISS EGGS.
Take a baking dish and butter the bottom generously. Sprinkle with grated cheese. Break in as many eggs as are required. Season with salt, pepper, and a tiny bit of cayenne. Pour over k cup cream and sprinkle more cheese. Bake 15 minutes.
PARIS EGGS.
Boil 6 eggs hard, when cool remove shell cut in two, take out the yolks and put them in a bowl, with the juice of one onion, pinch of red pepper, saltspoon of salt and $ cup cream. Mix thoroughly into a smooth paste, then return to the whites, and stand them in the bottom of a small pudding dish. Pour sauce over them and bake 20 minutes.
SAUCE.
Rub together till smooth 3 tablespoons cornstarch, 1 small tablespoon butter, saltspoon of salt, pinch of red pepper and juice of 1 onion. Put this with 1 pint of boiling cream (less amount used for yolks) stir until thick and smooth.
Chef of Les Trois Freres, Paris in "250 choice recipes."
(The above is a delicious dish, but I use only a few drops of onion juice. I found the flavor entirely too strong if a whole one was used. F. E. O.)
BEAUREGARD EGGS. Boil 12 eggs 20 minutes; remove shells, divide whites and yolks. Rub the yolks through a sieve into a dish alone; chop the whites very fine; blend 1 tablespoon of butter with 2 of corn starch in a saucepan and add a pint of milk and stir until thick and smooth. Stir in the whites of the eggs, $ teaspoon of salt and a pinch of white pepper. Have a nice piece of toast ready on each plate, and more for reinforcement . Spread each piece with the white sauce and sprinkle with the sifted yolks set in the oven a minute. A bit of parsley is also an improvement.
EGGS SUR Le PLAT OR SHIRRED EGGS.
Little individual stone china dishes come expressly for this mode

Stuffed. EGGS. Cradled.
of serving eggs. Heat and butter dish, break into it two eggs, sprinkle lightly with salt and pepper, and $ teaspoon butter. Place in hot oven about 5 minutes. These may be varied by adding different seasonings and flavorings. For instance, the cups may be rubbed with onion, a little chopped parsley, ham, tongue, chicken, or grated cheese may be sprinkled in the dish before the eggs are broken in.
STUFFED EGGS.
Boil 12 eggs 20 minutes; cut in two; also cut a thin slice from each end so the eggs will stand. Take out yolks and mash fine. Add 3 tablespoons melted butter, 2 drops onion juice, a little finely chopped boiled ham, small teaspoon prepared mustard, 1 of celery seed, salt and cayenne pepper to taste; make quite moist with vinegar, mix all thoroughly, chip the edges of whites in small points with scissors; fill with above mixture and serve each half on a small, curled lettuce leaf.
EGG LOAF.
Remove the shell from hard-boiled eggs; moisten a cup of bread crumbs with 1 teaspoon butter; mix with this the crumbled yolks of 3 hard-boiled eggs; season with salt and pepper; line bottom of dish with this mixture, place eggs in, then fill round again, and cover the top with buttered crumbs, and brown in oven 5 minutes. Garnish with slaw or chopped pickles.
SAVORY EGGS.
Tin cups, or tin muffin pans; butter thickly, line with thin layer of chopped parsley, put in bottom a thin layer of minced ham (seasoned), break egg in cup, sprinkle with salt and pepper, (be careful not to break the yolk); set molds in pan of boiling water until eggs set (about fifteen minutes). Serve upon a piece of round bread, toasted.
CRADLED EGGS. Mince very fine some cold chicken, turkey or duck and add some melted butter, pepper, salt, chopped parsley, and. two beaten eggs; moisten with some stock, put in a saucepan and place over a fire and cook about eight minutes; turn on a hot platter and make it smooth across the top, form a ridge all around and build a fence of triangular pieces of toast on the outside; have ready and place in this meat bed Deviled. EGGS. Omelets.
as many poached or dropped eggs as it will hold; garnish with parsley at each end of the platter.
DEVILED EGGS.
Boil eggs hard. When cold, take off the shells, cut in two lengthwise, remove yolks and mash fine in a bowl, adding salt, pepper, mustard and vinegar until it is palatable and taking care to keep it thick enough to replace in the whites. Smooth over and serve eithes in halves, or put the halves together. A most excellent dish.
EGG RELISH.
Take the whites of hard-boiled eggs divided in lengthwise halves. Drop into each one a teaspoon of mayonnaise, on this put the yolk rubbed through a sieve and mixed lightly with salt and pepper and top this with a bit of grated cheese.
CURRIED EGGS.
Boil eggs hard, remove shell and divide in lengthwise halves. Take i rounding tablespoon of butter, put it in a frying pan; in it fry one tart apple, one small onion, add a heaping teaspoon curry powder, the same of flour, 4 tablespoons stock or water; let simmer; then add the eggs and heat them thoroughly.- Have ready a dish of plain boiled rice, make room in the center of it for the mixture, and pour what may be left over the top.
PICKLED EGGS.
Boil eggs very hard and remove the shell. Take 1 teaspoon each of cinnamon, allspice, and mace, put in a little muslin bag in cold water, boil well, and if it boils away, add enough to make $ pint when the spices are taken out. Add 1 pint of strong vinegar, pour over the eggs. If you want them colored, put in some beet juice.

Wednesday, April 15, 2015

1875 Hats

Below you'll find a variety of 1875 hat designs, enjoy!