There was no annual Federal Income Tax in the 19th century but the folks of that century still had to pay taxes. Here's a brief sketch of some of the taxes.
1812 because of the cost of the War of 1812 the nation's first income taxes were paid. Gold, silverware, jewelry and watches.
1817 did away with taxes and started to rely on tariffs on imported goods.
1862 Congress enacted the first income tax law
1862 Commissioner of Internal Revenue established.
1868 Congress enacted a tobacco and Spirits tax
1872 Eliminated the Income Tax law
1894-1895 Income tax returned
1895 Supreme Court decided the tax unconstitutional