Velocipede was a term French inventor Nicéphore Niépce used to describe his version of the Dandy Horse also known as Laufmaschine (German for Running Machine). The year was 1818. The Dandy horse was built in 1817. Today the term is used to describe most of the early forms of bicycles.
These first Dandy Horses and Velocipedes were moved along with the rider walking on the ground. The effort gave the walker further distance with his steps. The first pedaled bikes were invented nearly 40 years later.
Google books also offers a book about the history of Velocipede This book was printed in 1869
And for some additional info and images check out Wikipedia.