Friday, March 7, 2014

Textile Fibers

Below are excerpts from Scissors & Yardsticks 1872

TEXTILE Fibers are of two classes,—animal and vegetable. The animal fibres comprise SILK, WOOL, and HAIR. The vegetable fibres comprise OOTTON, HEMP, and FLAX. A few others are, however, often included in the latter class of textile fibres, as JUTE, COIR, ABACA or MANILA, CHINA GRASS, SUNN, PINA, PLANTAIN, ALOE, etc.

A delicate fibre of great strength used in the manufacture of fabrics of high lustre and great durability. It is obtained from the cocoon of a worm called the silkworm, which obtains its sustenance from the leaves of the mulberry-tree. These worms were first known in China, where silk manufacture was first carried on to any
great extent.

The fleecy substance which covers a sheep, and some other animals, as the beaver, ostrich, lama, the goats of Thibet, Cachamyr, etc.
Sheeps' wool alone possesse the fulling or felting property. ...
Wools are distinguished in commerce as Fleece wool and Dead wool. The former is obtained from the annual shearing of the sheep. The latter is shorn from dead animals. The dead wool is harsh and weak, and incapable of taking a good dye.

A soft, downy substance, resembling wool, produced by the cotton-plant.

Flax is a fibrous plant, called by botanists linum, consisting of a single slender stalk, the skin or bark of which is used for making thread, and cloth called linen, cambric, lawn, etc.

A fibrous plant, closely allied to flax.
The skin, or bark, is used for making cloth, cordage, etc., and for the same purposes generally as flax.

Jute is a kind of coarse grass, similar to flax, but much inferior in quality.

The coarse fibre of the Cocoa-nut husk.
It is used in the manufacture of mattings, cordage, etc.

A fibrouse material, obtained from a plant allied to the banana, growing in the Phillippine Islands. The outer layer of fibres is called VANDALA, and is used for cordage. The inner layer is called LUPIS, which is used in weaving delicate fabrics. Between these are intermediate layers of fibre, called TUPOz, used in weaving fine cloths and guazes.

A long, fine grass, from Canton, Hong-Kong, and Asam. Three crops are produced yearly. The first is coarse, and the others are very fine, and are used in the manufacture of delicate fabrics.

A kind of fibrous flax, resembling jute.
It is cultivated in the same countries, and used for the same purpose.

The fibre of the banana tree, which is a species of Manila-hemp, but coarser.

The inner fibre of the pineapple tree. It is very fine, and spun like flax. It is also very expensive, as it can be obtained only in small quantities. It is used in the manufacture of muslins, and other fine fabrics.

A Fine, silk-like grass, from Turin, of which very fine and lustrous fabrics are woven. It is not very durable.

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