Tuesday, September 29, 2015

Peanut Butter

I apologize for this late post. I had an early morning appointment.

Below you'll find some basic information on Peanuts and Peanut Butter. It appears to me that peanut butter was not common place until the last decade of the 19th Century.

Of the 4,000,000 bushels of peanuts raised annually in this country i.000,000 bushels are used roasted. The remainder of the crop and he peanuts of an inferior grade go to the confectioner and appear in peanut candy and other confections. Therefore at present the peanut, is used among us, is hardly to be considered a food, but, as already -aid, only as a food accessory or luxury. It is quite possible, how?ver, that this highly nutritious and cheap product of our Southern fields may come to be used in more ways than it is at present, and [■specially in combination with other food materials.
Peanut butter.—The roasted peanut ground into an oily meal has somewhat the consistency of butter and is now marketed under the name of peanut butter. Salt is perhaps quite generally added during the process of manufacture. Water is also sometimes added—usually before serving. Peanut butter is used like other butter to spread on bread, for the making of sandwiches, and in the preparation of a number of made dishes. Many persons like its flavor when it is fresh and of good quality, and it seems fair to say that the use of this and other sorts of nut butter is growing. As regards composition, peanut butter, which is essentially the ground roasted peanut, contains more protein and less fat than ordinary butter. Little is known regarding the digestibility of peanut butter, but the fine grinding would naturally seem to be of an advantage. Judged by Jaffa's experiments with a ration containing peanuts, it would be well digested.
Source: The Farmer's Bulletin ©1894

THE production of nut butter is a very simple process. The peanut and almond are the nuts that are chiefly used for this purpose; but the Brazil-nuts make a very fine butter. All of the nuts can be ground, but as they can not be blanched, they do not make a nice looking butter. The Spanish peanut has proved the most satisfactory for butter making, although some people prefer the Virginia variety. The first essential thing is to have a nut-grinding mill.
The first step is to roast the peanuts to a nice brown, being careful not to over-brown or scorch them, as too much cooking spoils the flavor. They can be roasted in an ordinary oven, but can be better done in a peanut roaster made especially for this purpose. As soon as they are roasted and cool, the skins or bran should be removed by rubbing them in the hands, or what is better, a coarse bag; or take a square piece of cloth and fold the edges together, forming a bag of it. The chaff can then be removed by the use of an ordinary fan, or by pouring from one dish to another where the wind is blowing. The process of removing the skins is called blanching. Next look them over carefully, remove all defective nuts and foreign substances, and they are ready for grinding. If a fine, oily butter is desired, adjust the mill quite closely, and place in the oven to warm. Feed the mill slowly, turn rapidly, and always use freshly roasted nuts; after they have stood a day or two they will not grind well nor make oily butter. If the butter is kept in a cool place in a covered dish, and no moisture allowed to come in contact with it, it will keep several weeks; and if put in sealed jars or cans, will keep indefinitely.
Heat the peanuts just sufficiently to remove the skins, but do not allow them to get brown; prepare them as described in a former recipe, and grind in a nut mill. Although the raw peanut butter is not as palatable as the roasted butter, it is considered more healthful and easier of digestion. It is also preferable to use in making soups and puddings, in cooking grains, and in seasoning vegetables. Food seasoned with this butter does not have that objectionable taste that the roasted peanut butter imparts; and if it is properly used, the peanut taste is almost entirely eliminated.
Almond butter is more difficult to make than peanut butter because the skins can not be so easily removed. Roasting does not loosen the skins of the almond as it does of the peanut. They have to be soaked in boiling water from two to five minutes; then the skins become loose and can be pinched off by pressing on the nut with the thumb and finger; the skin will crack and the kernel pop out. But by this process the nuts have soaked up some water and become tough. They must then be dried in the oven until quite crisp, but the oven must not be hot, or they will brown. Then run them through a loosely adjusted mill or a sausage grinder, and place on a cloth stretched over the stove until perfectlydry; then grind them in the nut-butter mill, quite tightly adjusted. This makes excellent butter if the almonds are first-class, and sweet.
Source: Guide for Nut Cookery ©1899

Peanut Butter Cookies
1 teaspoon salt
1 cup sugar
1 cup brown sugar
1 cup lard
2 cups peanut butter Mix all ingredients adding flour last 2 eggs (well beaten) with soda and water. Drop on cookie
2 teaspoons baking soda sheet with teaspoon, press with fork. dissolved in Bake in 375° oven.
4 tablespoons warm water
3 cups flour added
Miss Blanche Roe
Source: Random Recipes ©1846 (Please note that might not be the actual date of the publication. There is no date on the original source from Google Books but the organization who put out the book was organized in 1846.)

The first patent for peanut butter was issued in the 1840's in Canada. (Lynn's note.)

Peanut Butter.—A new use for peanuts is developing as the peanut butter industry becomes better understood. This product of the peanut answers in the place of ordinary butter for table use, and is said to be excellent for shortening purposes and for gravies, sauces, etc. In point of purity it is superior to the best dairy butter. It is well designed for the use of the vegetarians who strenuously object to anything animal. There is already a demand for this butter substitute and it is very probable there will be an enlarged market for the nuts. At present the product of the United States is about 500,
000 bags annually and that of the world is 600,000,000 pounds.— West Coast Trade.
Source: Journal of Hygiene and Herald of Health ©1898

No comments:

Post a Comment