If you lived in the 19th Century and worked outside of a city more than likely you knew and had experience with cows. Below are some pictures and brief info to help the writer identify the type of cow that might be in their books.
Short Horned Cows
Source: The Farmers' Magazine Click link for the rest of the article.
Sussex Cow "Elsa"
Source: The Complete Grazier and Farmers' and Cattle=Breeders Assistant Click link for the entire book.
The Ayrshire is exceptionally hardy. Though you may not expect to freeze her blood in the yard, and at the succeeding thaw find her milk flow unimpaired, her coat sleek, and her back straight, yet she will be as profitable with those who expect all this from a cow as any other.
Source: The Dairy Cow Click link for the entire book.
Source: The Jersey, Alderney and Guernsey Cow Click the link for the entire book.