We eat a lot of salad in my house and now that it is summer we seem to eat even more. Below is an excerpt from "Salad and Salad Making" ©1884. There are a ton or recipes from the book but I especially enjoy the opening information. I've included the breakdown of the various types of salad dressings as well. Enjoy!
CLASSIFICATION OF SALADS.
Salad has a different significance to-day from what it once had. The original, contracted definition of the word has broadened and expanded, with the advance of modern ideas, until salads are no longer restricted to "uncooked herbs dressed with salt, vinegar or spices," but include a wide range of fruits, vegetables, fish and meats, prepared and dressed in a great variety of ways—in fact, nesry everything used as food may be brought into requisition in making salads.
Bat all varieties of salads are included in five classes, viz:
1. —Fruit Salads.
2. —Vegetable Salads.
4. —Meat Salads.
5. —Mixed Salads.
To one or the other of these classes every imaginable kind and style of salad belongs, and all binds and styles are governed by the same general principles that underlie the art of salad making.
DIVISION OF CLASSES.
Each class of salads may, however, be appropriately divided into two kinds—simple and compound salads.
A Simple Salad contains only a single sort of frnit, vegetable, fish or meat.
A Compound Saxad contains two or more sorts of fruit, vegetables, fish or meat.
CLASSIFICATION OF SALAD DRESSING.
As a salad may consist only of one sort of fruit, vegetables, etc., so a dressing may be simply a sprinkle of salt or sugar, or a few drops of oil or vinegar. But as there are elaborate salads of various kinds, so there are elaborate dressings, capable of almost endless changes and modifications.
There are, nevertheless, but four distinct classes of salad dressing, viz:
1. —Transparent Dressing.
2. —French Dressing.
3. —Cream Dressing.
4. —Mayonnaise Dressing.
THREE IMPORTANT RULES.
To excel in salad making, as in every other branch of cookery, a close analytical study of the subject is necessary; but the best success is attainable only by a strict observance of three very important rules, viz:—
1. —The ingredients composing the salad and dressing must be suitably chosen.
2. —They must be introduced into the mixture in a certain, specific order.
3. —The method of mixing must be suited to the nature of the ingredients.
A dressing, whether of salt, sugar, vinegar, or a combination of many things, should not be the prominent or main feature of a salad. It should be only a dressing—an adjunct, to tone down and soften too sharp an acid, or too pungent a flavor; or to render finer and more distinctive, some peculiar individuality of the fruits, vegetables, etc., composing the salad. This is the true mission of the dressing. And a salad dressing, scientifically prepared, brings out and develops the native characteristics of the various materials used, and crowns with perfectness the harmoniously compounded salad.
Transparent Salad Dressing.
A transparent dressing may be simply a clear syrup made of sugar and water; or, it may be a mixture of fruit juice and sugar. Or, it may be water in which herbs, vegetables, fish or meats have been cooked. It may be a sweet dressing, in which many fruit flavors and spices are mingled; or, it may be acid with vinegar or lemon, or pungent with mustard and other condiments. It may be thin as vinegar—thick as syrup or honey—or stiff as jelly. It may be colorless; or, it may be of any color, shade or tint that suits the fancy. Its only imperative requirement is, a transparent clearness. A good illustration of a transparent dressing, suitable for a fruit salad composed of bananas, pears, or any sweet fruit, is—
TRANSPARENT ORANGE DRESSING.
To the juice of three oranges and one lemon, which should make a half pint, add four ounces of sugar, one gill of sherry wine, and the white and shell of one egg. Beat all together. Heat to boiling point. Simmer live minutes. Strain. The wine may be omitted from this dressing, if desired. And, if liked, a small portion of the grated peel of both orange and lemon can be added.
JELLIED TRANSPARENT ORANGE DRESSING.
Is made by adding to the mixture before heating it, half an ounce of gelatine soaked an hour in a gill of cold water.
TRANSPARENT TOMATO DRESSING.
Thicken a pint of stewed, strained tomato, with a tablespoonfnl of arrow root mixed with cold water. Boil two minutes. Add an ounce of butter, half a teaspoonful of sugar, the same of salt, and a little pepper. This is very nice, either hot or cold, with any kind of meat salad.
JELLIED TRANSPARENT VEGETABLE DRESSING.
To one quart of boiling water slightly salted, or the same quantity of fish, chicken, or veal broth, add one medium sized carrot, one onion, half a bay leaf, a root of celery, ten cloves, twenty allspice, thirty pepper corns, and half a teaspoonful of white mustard seed. Simmer an hour, strain and let cool. To each pint of the liquor add a pint of vinegar, an ounce of gelatine soaked in cold water, and the white and shell of an egg. Heat to boiling point, simmer five minutes and strain.
, Class 2.
To four teaspoonfuls of vinegaradd half a teaspoonful of salt and one eighth of a teaspoonful of pepper; mix, and pour over salad, then add olive oil to taste.
FRENCH DRESSING, WITH MUSTARD.
To half a teaspoonful of made mustard, add olive oil slowly, stirring constantly. When thick, add vinegar in like manner. And thus alternate until the requisite proportions of oil and vinegar have been added. By observing this method of mixing, a large bottle of oil can be made into a perfectly smooth dressing—with only the half teaspoonful of made mustard as a base—by the addition of a few drops of vinegar from time to time, as required to thin the mixture. Add salt and pepper to taste. The usual quantities are a teaspoonful and a half of salt, and one fifth as much pepper, to each pint of oil.
To one pint of boiling cream, add two ounces of flour stirred to a smooth paste with two ounces of butter. Cook two minutes. Remove from the saucepan, and add one ounce of butter, stirring until cool and perfectly mixed, then season to taste with lemon juice, vinegar, salt, pepper, mustard, capers, minced onion, parsley, chopped pickle, etc.
SOUR CREAM DRESSING.
To one cup of sour cream add a fourth of a cup of vinegar or lemon juice. Season to taste withsalt and cayenne pepper. Use on vegetable or fish salad.
HOT CREAM DRES8ING.
Cook together, two minutes, an ounce of flour and an ounce of butter, add a pint of sweet cream and season to taste with salt and pepper. Use on boiled cabbage, cauliflower, potatoes, turnips, carrots, parsnips, beets or any vegetables.
This dressing may be varied by adding whites or yolks of eggs, minced onions, parsley, pickles, capers, vinegar or lemon juice; and may boused warm or cold according to taste.
HOT SLAW DRESSING.
Heat together to boiling point in a stew pan a gill of vinegar and an ounce of butter. Stir in an egg well beaten, and add a gill of sweet cream. Season to taste.
Another hot slaw dressing may be made in this manner: Mix together a gill of water and a gill of vinegar. Thicken with half an ounce of flour. Cook two minutes, add an ounce of butter and season to taste.
This is the most popular salad dressing in use, and is made in this manner: With a small wooden spoon stir the yolk of an uncooked egg in anearthen bowl, one minute. Then, continuing the stirring in the same direction all the time add olive oil drop by drop, until the mixture becomes thick and waxy. Thin by stirring in vinegar and lemon juice, in small quantities. Add oil as before; and so alternate the oil and vinegar until the required amount of dressing is made. Season with salt, pepper, mustard, chopped olives, capers, pickles, onions, celery, parsley, cresses or whatever is desired, according to taste, and the requirements of the salad with which the dressing is to be used. By simply observing care in regard to adding oil and vinegar slowly in small quantities, a large bottle can be made into dressing, and only one egg yolk be used as a base. Butter may always be substituted for olive oil when desired, and can be used in a Mayonnaise by stirring to a cream, and gradually adding a well beaten egg. The white of an egg beaten stiff may be added to any cream or Mayonnaise dressing just before it is used. In rich oil dressings sherry wine is frequently used in equal proportions with vinegar.
MAYONNAISE DRESSING. No. 2.
Mix in a two-quart bowl—to allow room for beating—one even teaspoonful of mustard, one teaspoonful of salt, and a teaspoonful and a half of vinegar. Add the yolk of an egg, beat all well together, then add gradually half a pint of olive oil. The oil should be poured in a fine tliread-like stream, and the mixture all the while be beaten rapidly. More vinegar or lemon juice may be used if required to make it the proper consistency.
COOKED MAYONNAISE DRESSING.
Add the well beaten yolks of five eggs to five tablespoonfnls of boiling vinegar. Cook in an earthen bowl, set in a pan of boiling water, until stiff—being careful to stir clean from the sides of the bowl while cooking. Remove from the fire, add four ounces of butter, and stir until cool and perfectly mixed. When quite cold season to taste with 6alt, pepper, mustard, etc., and thin with sweet cream to the required consistency. Oil, if preferred, may be used in place of cream. If the mixture when cooked is not perfectly smooth, it should be rubbed through a hair sieve. This is an excellent and convenient salad dressing; and when properly cooked will keep, without deterioration, for several days.
SYDNEY SMITH'S SALAD DRESSING.
The hard boiled yolks of eggs were formerly much used, and are by some people still preferred for making salad dressing. Perhaps the best recipe, when they are used, is the one popularized by being reduced to rhyme by the talented and witty English clergyman after whom it was named.
Two boiled potatoes passed through kitchen sieve,