There wasn't much to be found on the Friday the 13th from the earlier parts of the 19th Century. Yes, it dates back to the middle ages but it wasn't until the later part of the century that some of the superstitions began in earnest. You will find more references to the superstitions in European literature. But since this page is primarily for those researching for 19th Century American purposes I've restricted my tidbits to the USA
This tidbit comes from the Sanitary & Heating Age ©1894
Americans are the least superstitious people on earth, observes a Buffalo (N. T.) daily, but they cling to more fool notions than are good for them. Friday and the number 13 are still made to serve as excuses for disaster, and that by people who know better. Evil things were predicted of the third trial race for the America's cup because it was to be sailed on a Friday and the 13th of the month. In the horrible disaster at Battle Creek, the fact is brought out that both of the colliding trains consisted of 13 cars. Such reminders are constantly being made, in great things and small. People will say they do not believe in any malign influence attached to Friday or to the numoer 13, yet tbey go on in an asinine way to associate them with any misfortune to wh:ch they can be hitched. There is probably very little, if any, deliberate instruction given to children as to what are evil days and numbers and signs generally; yet the folly persists, generation after generation. Selfpropagated, the popular superstitions have nersisted since the beginning of history. Reason and the spirit of the day are against them, but they stick. Experts in folk-lore and the evolution of nations may have profound explanations for this; but on the face of it it looks as if mankind enjoyed holding to anything which could occasionally be made to do duty as a reason for disasters which really are due to human carlessness, selfishness and lack of foresight or of knowledge.