For today's tidbit I'm sharing some of the various ways I've come across during the later part of the 19th century, to keep cool.
Another New York bookseller, who has been interviewed on the subject of keeping a store cool in summer, claims that it can be done if proper measures of precaution are taken.
"For example,*' he says, "I have a transom over my door that I leave open every night; also the top of the back window. This gives a draft of cool air during the night, and I find it cool in the morning. I also follow the trail of the sun, and in the hot days in summer see that it never gets into my store."
"All the cleaning that is done in my place of business is done between six and seven in the morning. This gets the store in trim for the day's work. In order to keep out flies the store should always be darkened and, above all, the atmosphere pure. Flies and other insects will only come when the air is bad. Care should always be taken to place everything out of the way that will attract them. If possible, do not permit any eating or cooking in your store during the hot months. If you do, then place all your stock under covers, for flies and other insects will play havoc with it."
There are electric fans and other machine devices to cool stores, but for the small city and town bookseller the above is simple and low in price.
Source: The Bookseller and Newsman ©1896
How to Keep Cool in Summer.—In summer we should eat less meat and less food than in winter. Usually our appetite is not so good in summer as it is in winter, and naturally, therefore, we take less food, and we should wear light clothing. Everything we do during the warm parts of the summer days we should do slowly and should not hurry. We should not walk much in the sun without being shaded.
How the Body is Kept Cool in Summer.—It would seem difficult to prevent the body from being overheated in summer when the air around us is so warm; and you might wonder, too, why it is that the blood of a locomotive engineer, or of a cook, who is in front of a hot fire all day long, is no warmer than that of persons who can keep cool. There are two ways in which the bodily heat is prevented from rising above 98 degrees when persons must be near furnaces and fires or are otherwise exposed to the heat.
Both methods depend upon the fact that whenever moisture or water leaves any surface it makes that surface cold; that is, it takes some of the heat of that surface with it. In India, the drinking-water is cooled by placing it in porous clay
In this way our blood does not get any warmer in summer than in winter. For in summer more moisture leaves the body than in winter. Moisture leaves the body in two ways: By the lungs and by the skin. We breathe more rapidly in summer than in winter, especially if it is very warm, and in this way, more moisture is given off to the air from the blood passing through the lungs. Then again, the expired air contains more moisture in summer.
Perspiration.—The moisture which passes off by the skin is called perspiration. This is taking place constantly through the pores, but in summer so much passes off that it collects in drops and is then called visible or sensible perspiration.
Ice-water in Summer.—There is no objection to ice-water in summer if you do not drink too much, and if you take but a little at a time. Some people get into the habit of drinking ice-water constantly. This is very unhealthy and will make them suffer. But if it be remembered to drink it slowly and only a little at a time, it will not usually do any harm.
Source: May's Anatomy, Physiology and ©1899
ABOUT YOUR HAIR
YOU will never look cool in summer unless you learn to arrange your hair properly—that is to say, to bid good-by to the heavy bang which is on your forehead, and which will, after a few hours, look frowzy and become uncurled. Draw part of this back and pin it down with small lace hairpins, and have the very shortest fringe possible, if, indeed, you wear one at all. If your forehead is low and broad you can say farewell to the bang, and parting your hair in the centre draw it back in the neatest way possible. Instead of the soft, full loops that retained their position during the winter, braid your back hair and pin it closely to your head. This done one's coiffure will be neat all the day long, and if you have a well-shaped head it will bring out its outlines to perfection. I do not want any girl to think that I wish her to lose her good looks, and if she doesn't look well with her hair parted then let her elect to wear it rolled off her forehead, or if she has a very high forehead then she must have a short fringe or bang, with the ends just turned to soften her face. Do not wear fancy pins or ribbons during the day. In the evening, though, it is quite proper for you to put among your locks anything that you may choose. By-the-by, it must be remembered that I am talking now to the busy girl who wants to look her best in the summer time, and who yet has not the half hours in which to rest, and who cannot wear dainty house dresses, as does the girl who has no occupation in the outside world.
Source: Ladies' Home Journal ©1893