Friday, January 30, 2015

1879 Furniture Designs and Cottage in Queen Anne Style

Below are some illustrations from "The Illustrated Wood Worker" ©1879 February edition. I find it interesting that the "cottage" shown below is a cottage and not a house. On the other hand, I grew up were elaborate cottages were made for people to summer in. Anyway, enjoy these tidbits and perhaps they will find their way into one of your novels.

Plate 11 is an original design by Mr. Fieder of a mantel and cabinet. The cabinet will concern our readers more than the mantel. It will be noticed that in the back of the lower part of the cabinet is a mirror in an appropriate frame. The angular shelves on each side will strike the workman as being
novel, and at the same time useful. This piece of furniture would look well if made in walnut and finished in oil ; but of course the other furniture in the room would have a good deal to do in determining the kind of wood to use for its construction.
Plate 12 shows a handsome dining-room sideboard in the "Eastlake style," which was also designed by Mr. Fielder. This sideboard would look well in any natural wood, and is so constructed that any good workman can make it. Joiners or cabinet-makers who have any spare time on their hands could easily make a sideboard like this ; and we are sure, if the work is neatly done, and good material used, that it would find a ready sale, for this style of furniture is now in great demand all over the country.
Plate 13.—This plate shows a cottage, which is a very fine specimen in the "Queen Anne style." The method of construction is obvious. We are indebted to Mr. Kuhns, architect, of Philadelphia, for this drawing. Its estimated cost is $3000, finished in natural woods. The roofs and sides of building, where shown, are covered with slates. We are sure the readers of the Wood-worker will find much in the design to admire and appreciate. We hope to he favored with more illustrations from the same hand.

Thursday, January 29, 2015

Soda & Dispensers

Most of us think of soda as being a 20th century drink. Truth is that is was developed in the 19th Century. Soda Dispensers were put into most pharmacies or drug stores. Below is a link to a complete guide to Soda Dispensers but I've also included a brief section on how to use the soda dispenser.


Never allow a green hand to draw a glass of soda for a lady, let him practice first on himself and then on the small boy customer. Almost as much depends on the way a glass of soda is drawn as on the syrups and carbonated water. Always give your customers-a good solid glass of soda, with a liberal allowance of cream, topping off the glass with a fine creamy foam. Never ask customers if they Will have cream, for half of them don’t know whether or not they want it. Give them cream anyway, unless they request you not to, for as a rule it adds 50 per cent. to the quality of the drink. Even at 5 cents a glass you can well afford to give good cream and draw a solid drink. I am speaking of the old reliable flavors, of course, and of Sweet Cream. Not Ice Cream.

Very few dispensers know how to draw a glass of ice cream soda properly. This may seem strange, but nevertheless it is a fact. The usual method is syrup first, ice cream next,'then a little wind and water, that’s all. This makes a very unsatisfactory drink, as it is not properly mixed, and cannot be properly mixed when served in this manner, unless you use a spoon 'and make mush of it. In drinking a glass of soda served as above, Ist you taste wind, 2d plain soda, 3d ice cream, 4th syrup, all separate. This leads the customer to think that your ice cream soda is bad, and he goes out dissatisfied, but had you mixed the drink properly, using the same material, no doubt he would have been well pleased.
I always teach my soda men to draw the syrup first, then turn on the fine soda stream a moment, then the coarse, and again the fine till the glass is about one-half full, and the syrup, is thoroughly mixed with the water, then drop in the ice cream, and top off with the fine stream of soda. In this way you have a glass of soda thoroughly mixed, with the ice cream in the center, floating around, and not adhering to the sides of the glass. Try my way and see if your customers are not better satisfied with the result.

Saxe's New Guide, or Hints to Soda Water Dispenser

Wednesday, January 28, 2015

Birthday Party

Today is my birthday and that made me curious about 19th Century birthday parties and celebrations. Below are some tidbits regarding birthdays. Cards were often given during the 19th Century, I saw several advertisements for them but choose not to put copies of them here. Suffice it to say, Birthday Cards are not a new concept.

Child's Party and Invitations
A children's party is by no means a difficult undertaking, nor need it cost very much money, but it makes a child supremely happy. A children's party should be given in the daytime, or if in the evening the early evening hours should be chosen. From four to eight is a very good time to choose. Let the invitation for a birthday party be written either by the child's own hand, or by that of mother or sister. Where a child is old enough to do this for herself or himself, it is very proper to commit the task to him or her. The invitations may be very simple, and, preferably, should be written in the first person; the third person being too formal. They may, however, be written in the third person if the mother prefers this style, as, "Miss Edith Bartley requests the pleasure of Miss Mary Howard's company at a birthday party on Monday, April n, from four to eight o'clock."
When the little children come they may have games and other pleasing entertainment; as, for instance, a story told by an older young lady; forfeits, or anything which presents itself as agreeable to the mother. A peanut hunt or a game of hide-and-seek to find presents, which have been tucked away in different corners, is very interesting. The birthday supper need not be elaborate, but children like to have on such occasions besides the birthday cake, bonbons, mottoes, and what to most little ones is a treat—ice cream. A candy pull is always popular at a birthday party. Should you decide to have this, provide the children with large aprons to wear over their best clothes, so that they will not become spoiled with molasses or flour. Then let them flock into the kitchen, provide them with flour to keep the candy from sticking to their hands, and let them pull at their discretion.
Source: The Art of Home-making in City and Country ©1898

Birthday Social & Invitation
The following invitation to a birthday social will describe pretty well the plan of the gathering. With these invitations each Endeavorer is to receive a pretty little bag of brightly colored silk, in which he is expected to place as many pennies as he is years old.
Y. P. 5. C. E. Birthday Social.
At the residence of W. H. Putnam, Monday Evening,
February 4, 1895.

This birthday party
Is given to you;
We hope you will come,

And promise, if you do,
An agreeable time,

Some good things to eat,
And, besides many others,

A musical treat.
As we could not secure

The number of candles,
To let your light shine,

We send this fandangle.
Put safely within it

As many round pennies
As years you are old;

We hope you are many!
Your light will be bright

If you send it or bring it,
While we keep it dark,

If you wish, what is in it.
The social committee,

With greetings most hearty,
Feel sure you will come

To your own birthday party I
The entertainment for the birthday socials is to be prepared beforehand. Discover twelve members of the society whose birthdays fall in the twelve months of the year, and get these to write, or get somebody to write for them, poems upon those months, each lauding his as the best month of the twelve. Prepare also songs, one for each of the four seasons, and, if thought best, one tableau as well for each season. In giving this programme, those whose birthdays fall in the spring months will first read their poems, then will come the spring song, and the spring tableau may close the whole; and so with the other seasons. After the poem for each month has been read, those whose birthdays fall in that month will go forward and solemnly present their bags of pennies. You may close with a debate as to the best season in which to have one's birthday!
Source: Social to Save ©1895

Menu for a Birthday Party

Birthday Cake
And of course what birthday would be complete without Cake? Here's a recipe from Mrs. Owens New Cook Book
The 1-2-3-4 cake or number cake as it is sometimes called, is a good foundation for nearly all cake batters. Combined with chocolate, fruits, nuts and different flavors, it can be utilized for a great variety of cakes. I have found that soda and cream of tartar give better results in this cake than baking powder. The latter seems to dry out more quickly.
1-2-3-4 CAKE.
1 cup butter. 2 cups sugar.
3 cups flour. 4 eggs.
1 cup milk. 1 teaspoon soda.
2 teaspoons cream of tartar.

The 1-2-3-4 recipe makes a very nice birthday cake if baked in a dripping pan and heavily frosted. When the frosting is partly dry mark it off in small squares and put half an English walnut meat on each. Place around it a frame work of paste-board cut in little holes for as many small candles as the person is years old. Cover the paste-board with fancy colored paper. Sometimes little candle sticks may be procured that will fasten easily either to frame work or edge of pan. This simplifies matters very much. The lights in the room should be put out and the cake brought in with candles lit and placed before the person whose natal day is being celebrated and he should cut and distribute it.

Tuesday, January 27, 2015

Manicure Set

Today's basic manicure set has more items than what I found in an advertisement for a sterling silver set in "The Jewelers' Circular" ©1894. However, it has a couple items we don't have in our sets today.


With Shoe Horn and Shoe Buttoner.

Put up in Fine Leather Roll, Lined with Dark Green Velvet and Having Beautiful Silk Flaps to fold over.
When Rolled Up it is Soft, Pliable, and Just the Thing to Pack in a Grip.

Monday, January 26, 2015

Kitchen Knives

Dexter Harrington & Son, Southbridge, Mass, manufacturers of the Dexter knives and blades, refer to their goods as made solely for cutting purposes, and not for show, and advise us that all knives are ground sharp and honed before leaving the factory. This cutlery business was established in the Harrington name at Southbridge in 1818, or 80 years ago. The business has increased to such an extent as to necessitate additions to capacity of plant from time to time. The concern have recently completed a substantial addition, which will largely increase their output. New and special machinery is being installed, and they expect to double last year’s production during 1899. The line of goods shown in their illustrated catalogue include shoe knives in a variety of shaped blades; kitchen, carving. butcher, skinning and bread knives. Rubber, shoe and cloth blades in various shapes are also shown. The kitchen knives are furnished in five styles of blade, with either black or light enamel handles put on. In the same grade are made 6 inch meat and 7-inch bread knives. A line of butcher knives. not shown in the catalogue, are now being made in sizes from 5 to 14 inches.
Source: Iron Age 1899

A list of Kitchen Knives from "Seeger & Guernsey's Cyclopadeia" ©1890
Banana Knife,
Boning Knife,
Bread Knife,
Carving Knife,
Cheese Knife,
Fish Knife,
Fish Scaling Knife,
Fruit Knife,
Lemon & Orange Knife,
Mincing Knife,
Steak Knife,
Table Knife

One of the knives in the list above, I'd not heard about is a Banana Knife. Below is a picture of one.

Another is the Orange and Lemon Knife, note the grated edge on the upper part of the knife.

Friday, January 23, 2015

Portable Cooking Stoves

Today when we think portable cooking stove, we picture camp stoves or propane grills. So, when an author is researching and comes across the term "portable cooking stoves" our 19th century characters do not have the same picture in their minds. I found this brief article on kitchen ranges and portable cooking stoves in "The Sanitary Record" 1876. I believe this will help clarify the term for writers of history and historical fiction.

As we consider that some mention of these classes of goods cannot but be interesting to the readers of the Sanitary Record, we append the result of a visit to several establishments where such articles are sold.
The close ranges manufactured by Messrs. Brown and Green, of Luton and Bishopsgate Street, London, have often been lauded for the peculiar advantages which they possess over the'many common ranges. Instead of the usual door to one of these patterns the upper portion of the fire is enclosed with a cast-iron plate, so constructed as to fall down and form a trivet, upon which boiling can be performed when the fire is low. Should this trivet be used for roasting purposes its position excludes the usual current of cold air from passing over the fire, the effect of which is only to waste the fuel inside the bars. When this cast-iron plate becomes redhot it serves the purpose of roasting quite as well, in fact, as the open fire below. A series of small perforations in the upper part of the plate admit air-jets and so tend to assist in the consumption of the smoke. The grate space in which the fuel is burnt, though wide enough for roasting a good-sized joint, is, nevertheless, proportionately narrow from back to front, and by this arrangement the utmost value of the coal or; other fuel is realised. The sliding plate over the fire which forms the close range is also more handy than the lifting style of cover, which necessitates the use of a lever. As for ventilation two conical pipes, scientifically placed, assist the action of the door. The double oven range, five feet long, is fitted up with porcelain panels, and is a marvel of clean casting, whilst the polished wrought-iron mountings of the oven doors, etc., are equally commendable. Perhaps the most unique pattern of the series is that in which the fire is entirely enclosed with plates, which are allowed to get red-hot when roasting is going on, the draught being under command by a ventilator in the door of the ashpit— which latter is also enclosed. By this construction slow combustion is fairly attained, and coke can be used, the whole being free from dust and smoke. Where ranges are in request for burning all night without attention this last-described pattern is a most valuable desideratum.
The kitchen ranges proper made by this firm are equally commendable—and possess the great advantage of allowing meat to be roasted in front of the fire whilst the ovens are being used. They are also fitted up with boilers for bath and lavatory use, and the water before being withdrawn can be made to course in pipes so as to heat halls or conservatories. Some of the largest-sized ranges are fitted with several ovens and steamers, and these are admirably adapted for use in hotels, hospitals, and in public or large private establishments of every kind. They are simple of management, and avoid the annoyance of that close heat which prevails in most of our kitchens. The new patent' close ranges with an open chimney' are well adapted for use in kitchens badly ventilated, and where an absolutely close range would be found unbearable.
There is a class of cooking-stove which is inexpressibly valuable, not only in the house, but in temporary buildings, on board yachts, and the like— we mean a portable cooking-stove. The ' gem ' pattern of this firm is most worthy of commendation, having all the good points of the lightly-made foreign stove and all the solid advantages of the best English ones. They are fitted up immediately, and consume the very minimum amount of either coal or wood. We have often wondered that the working-classes, pestered as they often are with the apologies for cottage-ranges which arc found in the houses rented by them, do not remove, if only temporarily, these miserable scarecrows of iron, and replace them with effective and cheap articles, such as the portable cooking-stove now under review. It could be moved with their other effects when they leave the house, and would be even a valuable heirloom. We have just learnt that they are largely exported for foreign use, and are not surprised, as they will stand the roughest usage.
There are many other equally useful articles, large and small, to be seen in the establishment of Messrs. Brown and Green, but which we cannot particularise. We will, therefore, forbear to explain a range of theirs, fourteen feet in length, with four evens and three boilers, which is able to plain-cook for over 2,000 persons at a cost of less than an ounce of fuel per head, as this would take up considerable space. Neither can we describe their valuable ventilating-stoves, now so well known amongst us, and which are made of all sizes. In taking leave of this firm—who were the pioneers of close-ranges—we will only add that they were the recipients of the medals in 1862, 1865, and 1867; and that anything in the way of warming, cooking, and ventilating media can be seen, and seen well at their establishment It is a pleasure to be able to recommend it, for it is in itself an exhibition of all that is sound and enduring in cooking-machinery.
There is another genus of cooking-apparatus which, whilst not boasting the permanent character of those just mentioned, owing to their comparative slightness of structure, are nevertheless valuable beyond compare in small families.
We have just seen a stove of this description (the invention of Mrs. Amelia Lewis), at 420, Strand, London, which combines in itself economic heating with superior cooking. It is even handsome in its appearance, and fit for the sitting-room, but it is in - the saving of fuel where its chief forte may be said to lie.
Like other portable cooking-stoves it can be inserted into any flue, but, unlike some others, it has not too much iron surface, and in consequence of this it does not give off a superabundance of that close smell which is so often felt when near the common cooking-stoves. It can be lit rapidly and burns freely, but the draught is nevertheless held in good check, and its economy is perfect. It is almost impossible to overrate this stove as an adjunct to a kitchen-range in the scullery or still-room, but we quite agree with a critique which we have seen passed upon it to the effect that here is exactly the stove for use in the schools of cookery, which it is to be hoped will now speedily abound in the land, and for the delectation and convenience of those young ladies who wish to reproduce at home the viands which they have learned to prepare at those institutions. For the rest, the ' People's Stove' is equipped with all the accessories, and requires only cleaning out twice a week with a brush. The stew-pans are used in the ordinary way, and when not in use the pans can be
systematically packed away and occupy but littlespace. If an oven is required it is only necessary to place a baking-cover over the iron saucer, and that is fairly achieved. A one-opening stove will cook meals for two persons—a very good investment for a solitary bachelor or spinster; a two-opening stove • j with its utensils will cook for a small community; I and the three and four-opening ones will provide for 'the largest families. The larger sizes are roasters, j steamers, stewers, and bakers, one and divisible. The draughts of these stoves are regulated by dampers in the ordinary manner.
We cordially recommend our readers to visit for themselves the show-rooms of the National Food and Fuel Reform Association, and see these goods^ in full operation.
Another marvel in cooking-ranges is the 'Treasure ' range, sold by Mr. Constantine, of Fleet Street, and we spent a considerable time in examining the system upon which they are constructed; and after such examination we were bound to confess that theword 'treasure' was not unfairly assumed by theinventor of this economical stove. It is a homeproduced article, which will bear the utmost inspection, well made, well fitted up, and, unlike many others, endurable.
The 'design' is also recommendable; they leave no fuel unconsumed ; but what is most astonishing; is the small amount of fuel which they require. Wedo not know a better cooking-range of this particular kind, where a low first-cost is wanted, and at the same time an efficient labour-saving and spaceeconomising article. Many of our readers may recollect having seen it in a room in the south galleries of the International Exhibition of 1873; but even if they did so, and are on the look-out for a cooking contrivance of its special kind which will guarantee really an immense saving in coals, they will do wisely in sending for Mr. Constantine's illustrated catalogue.
We have also just paid a visit to the establishment of Messrs. Murdoch and Co. Lawrence Pountney Hill, Cannon Street, City, and have been much struck with the 'Livingstone' Range, which they manufacture in Scotland and sell very largely in England and all parts of the globe.
Like some of their other ranges it can be placed either in a fireplace or in front of a fireplace. It has the uncommon advantage moreover of being available away from a fireplace altogether, all that is wanted being a funnel for the withdrawal of the smoke. The range possesses a hot plate available for all purposes, a ventilated oven for baking or roasting, but besides this, the front of the fire can be used for the cooking of joints. This is a great desideratum, for game is spoilt by being baked in the oven. The fire can, however, be covered up when not required to be exposed, and in this manner the maximum of saving in fuel secured.
The hot-water supply is also admirable, the water cistern being made of copper tinned inside and standing above as well as below the level of the hot plate. This enables the ' Livingstone' range to hold a larger supply of hot water than any other stove kitchener or range that we remember to have noticed. And the upper part of the hot-water cistern can be used as a bain-marie, which is a wonderful adjunct in cooking. The cistern can easily be made to supply itself automatically. The heating of thfr water is done on a novel and economical system, and the cistern itself can be easily taken out and cleaned^
It is, however, in the small consumption of coal where the worth of these ranges lie. Only a little coal need be provided and the full value of such coal is extracted. Either wood or peat will also suit these stoves. As for the ashes, they fall into a secured pan. The range needs no particular setting, and in conclusion we can only repeat that we have been greatly taken with the 'Livingstone' kitchener.

Thursday, January 22, 2015

Raisin Breads

Here's something a little different for your characters to have in your novels. We often think of them having bread, buttering their bread or even having toast, but seldom have I read or even wrote about raisin bread. What about you?

Below are some recipes for Raisin bread from the 19th Century.

Raisin Bread.
Pick, wash and seed the raisins, a full pint for an ordinary loaf; put them in a small, covered vessel, and set the latter into a larger one containing boiling water; cover this also, and place over the fire. Let the raisins steam half or three-quarters of an hour; the water that adheres from washing, is sufficient to steam them. Mix and knead the bread, as in either of the preceding recipes; when ready to mould work the raisins in evenly, and set it to rise in single loaf tins. Bake an hour, or till well done, and eat the next day.
Source: Health in the Household ©1883

A RAISIN LOAF—Take a loaf of bread in the dough, add I tablespoon butter, 1 teaspoon sugar, 1 large egg or 2 small ones, and 1 cup of stoned raisins. Mix well together, let rise an hour, and bake in a well heated oven.
Source: Mrs. Owens' New Cook Book ©1897

Raisin Bread Pudding.
Boil your bread pudding in a basin; put the stoned raisins in a circle at the top, and from it stripes down, when ready to serve up.
Source: The Lady's Own Cookery Book ©1844

Bread And Raisin Pudding.
1 quart milk.
Enough slices of baker's bread—stale—to fill your dish.
Butter to spread the bread.
4 eggs.
1/2 cup of sugar.
3/4 pound of raisins, seeded and each cut into three pieces.
Butter the bread, each slice of which should be an inch thick, and entirely free from crust. Make a raw custard of eggs, sugar and milk. Butter a pudding-dish and put a layer of sliced bread at the bottom, fitted closely together and cut to fit the dish. Pour a little custard upon this, strew the cut raisins evenly over it; and lay in more buttered bread. Proceed in this order until the dish is full. The uppermost layer should be bread well buttered and soaked in the custard. Cover the dish closely, set in a baking pan nearly full of hot water, and bake an hour. When done, uncover, and brown lightly.
You can spread with a meringue, just before taking from the oven.
Eat hot, with sauce.
Source: Breakfast, Luncheon and Tea ©1875

Wednesday, January 21, 2015

1883 Fashions Continued

Here are eleven more fashion images from 1883.

Evening Dress
Boy Knickerbockers
Girl Coats
Painted Kid (I'm not sure if a 'kid' is the same as a purse, perhaps one of you know)
Walking Jacket
Women's Dresses
Winter Coat on Left, Mourning Costume Right

Tuesday, January 20, 2015

Private Detectives

Most historical writers are aware of the Pinkerton Detective Agency and the fictional tales of Sherlock Holmes. Both are from the 19th Century. Below are links and tidbits to other detective related stories and tidbits.

The Revelations of a Private Detective ©1868

Here's a copy of an advertisement for the above story with other detective stories listed.

Chapter Five of Major Joshua is a chapter on the life of the character as a private detective. 1894

Chapter Seven of Sealed Orders is the chapter on a private detective. 1886

Thirty Years A Detective by Allan Pinkerton ©1884

The Adventures of a United States Detective ©1876

Traced and Tracked; or Memoirs of a City Detective ©1884

Hands Up; Or Twenty Years a Detective ©1882

There are many more volumes you can find in Google books if you wish to search further and within your time frame.

Monday, January 19, 2015

Quinine Biscuits

I was searching for southern biscuit recipes and stumbled on these quinine Biscuits. I began to wonder which of my characters might want to use them, and just what were they used for anyway. Although the advertisement pretty much sums it up. So, I set out exploring a little about quinine biscuits. Enjoy!

Quinine Biscuits.—One of the London bakers has introduced a dietetic novelty in the shape of quinine biscuits. They are small, extremely well made, and have a pleasant and delicately bitter flavor, not too strongly pronounced, which is exactly what a club man seeks in his sherry and bitters. Each biscuit is estimated to contain one-fourth of a grain of quinine, and for delicate stomachs, or where it is desirable to disguise medicine as much as possible, or to combine food with medicine in a perfectly agreeable form, these biscuits are likely to become very popular.—English Journal.
Source: Medical Record ©1872
Note that while this was published in a London journal it was reprinted in several American Medical journals.

Here's a link to Wiki with some basic information about quinine and it's uses.

Friday, January 16, 2015

Bathing Cabinet

Here's an interesting tidbit I found in McClure's Magazine (1898), a bathing cabinet. Marketed as a Godsend to all Humanity. The advertisement goes on to say:

An inventive genius of Cincinnati, Ohio, has patented and placed on the market a Bath Cabinet that is of great interest to the public, not only the sick and debilitated, but also those enjoying health.
It is a sealed compartment, in which one comfortably rests on a chair and with only the head outside, may have all the invigorating, cleansing and purifying effects of the most luxurious Turkish Bath, hot vapor or medicated vapor baths at home for 3 cents each, with no possibility of taking cold, or in any way weakening the system.
A well-known physician of Topeka, Kansas, E.I. Eaton, M.C. gave up his practice to sell these bath Cabinets, feeling that they were all his patients needed to get well and keep well, as they cured the most obstinate diseases often when his medicine failed, and we understand he has already sold over 600. Another physician of Chicago, Dr. John C. Wright, followed Dr. Eaton's example moved West and devotes his entire time to selling these Cabinets. Many others are doing likewise.
Hundreds of remarkable letters have been written the inventors from those who have used the Cabinet, two of which referring to Rheumatism and La Grippe.

The advertisement is a full page and if you wish to read it in it's entirety here's a link go to page 144.

Thursday, January 15, 2015

Montgomery Ward Catalog

Years ago I posted a tidbit about Montgomery Ward Catalogs. You can follow the link here to read the old post.

Finding links to online sources for this catalog are difficult to come by. You can find many replica copies of the catalogue for sale on ebay. My copy is the fall & winter catalogue of 1894-95.

What is the advantage for a historical author to use a catalogue like Montgomery Ward for their novel? Besides showing the price of items from that time period. You also see what were the interests at that time. Games, Books, equipment of all kinds, etc.

I have found one link to a source.

Montgomery Ward & Co. Common Cookery 1897

If you have found others please share them in the comment section. Thanks.

Wednesday, January 14, 2015

Fashions from 1883

Picking up with Historical Fashion Wednesdays we're looking at outfits from 1883.
Jacket Front & Back
Winter Jacket Front & Back


Hats & Bonnets

Tuesday, January 13, 2015


In 19th Century literature you'll find several books, poems, etc. written with a cabin as a major focus. Below is a list with links to various resources. Something to keep in mind that during the 19th century a cabin was a single room structure.

The most common source would be Life at the South or more commonly known as Uncle Tom's Cabin ©1852

The Log Cabin ©1844

The Hunter's Cabin ©1862

Poor Paddy's Cabin ©1854

The Cabin in the Clearing & Other Pioneer Poems ©1868

The Cabin on the Prairie ©1869

The Mud Cabin ©1853 So this one is not fiction but uses the term with regard to the politics or how the author saw the politics of Britain at this time.

Of course a cabin can be more nautical in nature so we have The Cabin Boy's Story ©1854

Chronicles of Capstan Cabin ©1878

The Two Cabin Boys©1881

The Captain's Cabin ©1877

Monday, January 12, 2015

Eye Care

Here's an interesting tidbit on the care of the eye from Dr. Chase's Home Advisor & Everyday Reference Book ©1894

As our greatest pleasures and knowledge are derived fiom the sight, so has Providence been more curious in the foundation of its seat, the eye, than in the organs of the other senses.—Sir A'. Steele.
The Eyes, and How to Care for Them.—The eye is not only the light-house to the soul, but it is undoubtedly the most valuable member of the human body, and I except none. It therefore behooves us to exercise every possible precaution for its preservation, and no words are too strong to serve as warning to those who wrongfully use or abuse the eye.
Care of the Eyes.—Never read in bed or when lying upon the sofa. Sit with your back to the light as much as possible. Attend to your digestion. Do not work longer than two hours without closing your eyes and resting them for five minutes. If your eyes are weak, bathe them in cold water to which a little salt and a little brandy have been added.
Don't work by twilight or by a flickering light. The rapidly diminishing light between sunset and dusk is most fatal to the eyes. Fine needlework, especially colored embroidery, should be pursued only in good light.
Don't read in direct sunlight, as the glare is a direct irritant to the retina. In reading by artificial light, the back should always be turned to the source of illumination, allowing the light to pass over the shoulders. When working by artificial illumination, the light should either be high enough to permit shading of the eyes by the brows, else an opaque screen, or, better still, a translucent shade should cut off the glare of the light from the eyes, and yet permit illumination of the work. The light of an oil lamp is, as a rule, better than that furnished by the average corporation gasburner.
The eye speaks with an eloquence and truthfulness surpassing speech. It is the window out of which winged thoughts often fly unwittingly.—Tuckerman.
In one case—not among the employes just spoken of—the contraction of the pupil was so great that the sufferer was unable to go about without assistance. He had smoked from twenty to thirty cigars a day. He renounced tobacco, and his sight was fully restored in three and one-half months.

Friday, January 9, 2015

Sulky A type of Carriage

Below is a page from my 19th Century Carriages & Wagons Resource Guide for Writers Book. If you're interested in purchasing the book click the title for a link.


DESCRIPTION: A light two-wheeled carriage for a single person, drawn by one horse, used as a pleasure-carriage and for trials of speed between trotting-horses.
Defined by The Imperial Dictionary ©1883
Wooden wheels with iron rims built wide to travel over most roads in the earlier days. Built on elipticle springs. When racing became the primary use for the sulky then it had thinner wheels.
YEARS BUILT AND/OR IN SERVICE: This has been hard to tie down.
Online entomology dictionary has 1756
They aren't listed in the tax roles I found for 1800. But I did find them in the tax 1813 tax laws for PA.
The racing sulky industry reports they were first built in the mid-1800's.
What this means is they were probably in Europe before the United States and we know they were here before 1820 because they were taxed.
POWERED BY: 1 horse or colt.
Today they also use dogs for racing sulkies.
COSTS: 1834 cost $70-$80

An old saying:
A bachelor is a person who enjoys everything and pays for nothing; a married man is one that pays for everything and enjoys nothing. The one drives a sulky through life, and is not expected to take care of any one but himself: the other keeps a carriage, which is always too full to afford him a comfortable spot. Be cautious then how you exchange your sulky for a carriage.
Etiquette for Gentlemen ©1847

Lead him to and around it; let him look at it, touch it with his nose, and stand by it till he does not care for it; then pull the shafts a little to the left, and stand your horse in front of the off wheel. Let some one stand on the right side of the horse, and hold him by the bit, while you stand on the left side, facing the sulky. This will keep him straight. Run your left hand back, and let it rest on his hip, and lay hold of the shafts with your right, bringing them up very gently to the left hand, which still remains stationary. Do not let anything but your arm touch his back, and as soon as you have the shafts square over him, let the person on the opposite side take hold of one of them, and lower them very gently to the shaft-bearers. Be very slow and deliberate about hitching; the longer time you take the better, as a general thing. When you have the shafts placed, shake them slightly, so that he will feel them against each side. As soon as he will bear them without scaring, fasten your braces, etc, and start him along very slowly. Let one man lead the horse, to keep him gentle, while the other gradually works back with the lines till he can get behind and drive him. After you have driven him in this way a short distance, you can get into the sulky, and all will go right. It is very important to have your horse go gently when you first hitch him. After you have walked him awhile, there is not half so much danger of his scaling. Men do very wrong to jump up behind a horse to drive him as soon as they have him hitched. There are too many things for him to comprehend all at once. The shafts, the lines, the harness, and the rattling of the Bulky, all tend to scare him, and he must be made familiar with them by degrees. If your horse is very wild, I would advise you to put up one foot the first time you drive him.
The Modern art of taming Horses ©1858

Thursday, January 8, 2015


Over the years I've posted a few posts on soap. Below are some recipes from The Cumberland Valley Cook & General Recipe Book ©1881. And below that are some links to former posts as well as a link to a book on Google.

How To Make Soap.—Slack 5 lbs. lime with hot water, then add 6 1/2 lbs. soda ash to it, and pour 4 1/2 large buckets of boiling water on it; then stir well, let stand over night; then pour the clear lye to 15 lbs. rendered fat, or 25 lbs. bacon 3kins, into a kettle. Then pour 4 buckets boiling water on the soda ash, and lime again to make your lye. Now boil your fat 1 hour, then add 1 1/2 pts. salt, boil 1 hour longer; then put the soap into a tub, let stand over night, replace it in the kettle again and pour the 4 buckets of weak lye to it. Boil 2 hours, then add 1 1/2 pts. more salt. Boil half an hour.
Hard Soap.—To 6'lbs. soap-fat, take 6 lbs. soda, and 3 lbs. lime. Boil the soda and lime in 4 gals, of water, pour off the clear liquor, taking care to get no sediment. Add this to your fat, boil until soap, pour it out, and when cold, cut as desired. This needs no salting.
Soap.—6 lbs. good lime, 6 lbs. soda ash, 12 lbs. rendered fat, 15 gals, water. Put the lime and soda ash in the kettle with all the water, and let it boil from 5 to 10 minutes smartly. Then put in a tub to settle, which it will do in a few minutes. Dip it back into the kettle and add the fat. Boil 4 or 5 hours. No salt, or it will be ruined.
Erasive Soap.—2 oz. aqua ammonia, 1 oz. white shaving soap, 1 teaspoon saltpetre, 1 qt. soft water.
The sender of the above recipe says it is worth ten dollars to any family, and costs but little to try it.
For Removing Grease, Etc.—2 oz. castile soap, 2 oz. strongest ammonia, 1/2 oz. ether, 1/2oz. alcohol, cut the soap fine and heat in a pint of soft water until dissolved; then add 1/2 gal. more water and all the ingredients. Keep corked tight. Cleans all kinds of cloth, carpets, paints, glass, etc., and is a good shampoo for the head. Use sponge, and rinse afterward in clear water. Cost of the above ingredients, 25 cents.

Below is a list of former posts:

1893 Soap Ad & 1869 Soap Recipes

Phosphate Soap

Soap Substitute Recipe

Google Book Resources:
The Art of Soap Making

Wednesday, January 7, 2015


I found this little gem of a book on fashion titled "The Freaks of Fashion"©1870, below is the Preface. There are tons of illustrations in the book, along with all kinds of tidbits. Click the title for a link to the book in google books.

The subject which we have here treated is a sort of figurative battle-field, where fierce contests have for ages been from time to time waged; and, notwithstanding the determined assaults of the attacking hosts, the contention and its cause remain pretty much as they were at the commencement of the war. "We in the matter remain strictly neutral, merely performing the part of the public's * own correspondent," making it our duty to gather together such extracts from despatches, both ancient and modern, as may prove interesting or important, to take note of the vicissitudes of war, mark its various phases, and, in fine, to do our best to lay clearly before our readers the historical facts—experiences and arguments—relating to the much-discussed "Corset question?
As most of our readers are aware, the leading journals especially intended for the perusal of ladies have been for many years the media for the exchange of a vast number of letters and papers touching the use of the Corset. The questions relating to the history of this apparently indispensable article of ladies' attire, its construction, application, and influence on the figure have become so numerous of late that we have thought, by embodying all that we can glean and garner relating to Corsets, their wearers, and the various costumes worn by ladies at different periods, arranging the subject-matter in its due order as to dates, and at the same time availing ourselves of careful illustration when needed, that an interesting volume would result.
No one, we apprehend, would be likely to deny that, to enable the fairer portion of the civilised human race to follow the time-honoured custom of presenting to the eye the waist in its most slender proportions, the Corset in some form must be had recourse to. Our information will show how ancient and almost universal its use has been, and there is no reason to anticipate that its aid will ever be dispensed with so long as an elegant and attractive figure is an object worth achieving.
Such being the case, it becomes a matter of considerable importance to discover by what means the desirable end can be acquired without injury to the health of those whose forms are being restrained and moulded into proportions generally accepted as graceful, by the use and influence of the Corset. It will be our duty to lay before the reader the strictures of authors, ancient and modern, on this article of dress, and it will be seen that the animadversions of former writers greatly exceed modern censures, both in number and fierceness of condemnation. This difference probably arises from the fact of Corsets of the most unyielding and stubborn character being universally made use of at the time the severest attacks were made upon them; and there can be no reasonable doubt that much which was written in their condemnation had some truth in it, although accompanied by a vast deal of fanciful exaggeration. It would also be not stating the whole of the case if we omitted here to note that modern authors, who launch sweeping anathemas on the very stays by the aid of which their wives and daughters are made presentable in society, almost invariably quote largely from scribes of ancient date, and say little or nothing, of their own knowledge. On the other hand, it will be seen that those writing in praise of the moderate use of Corsets take their facts, experiences, and grounds of argument from the every-day life and general custom of the present period.
The Crinoline is too closely associated with the Corset and with the mutable modes affected by ladies, from season to season, to be omitted from any volume which treats of Fashion. The same facts, indeed, may be stated of both the Crinoline and the Corset. Both appear to be equally indispensable to the woman of the present period. To make them serve the purposes of increased cleanliness, comfort, and grace, not only without injury to the health, but with positive and admitted advantage to the physique—these are the problems to be solved by those whose business it is to minister to the ever-changing taste and fashion of the day.

Tuesday, January 6, 2015

Cake Anyone

Here are some cake recipes from "Cook Book of Tried Recipes" ©1897 There are some different recipes then we tend to run across today. Enjoy!

Cream Chocolate Cake.
Stir to a light cream one cup sugar and one-half cup butter, then add' one-half cup sweet milk; add whites of three eggs well beaten, two small cups of flour, onehalf teaspoonful baking powder. Add the eggs and flour alternately. Icing—One and one-half cups granulated sugar, one-half cup sweet milk; boil five minutes; take off the fire and stir until it begins to thicken; flavor strongly with vanilla and spread on cake while warm; then take two squares of Baker's chocolate, dissolved over steam of teakettle and spread over the white icing. Mrs. W. G. Byron.
Raisin Cake.
One pound flour, one-half pound butter, one-half pound raisins, one cup sour cream, six eggs, one nutmeg, juice of a large orange, one teaspoon soda dissolved in a little boiling water.
Mrs. R. J. Mendenhall. White Cake.
One cup sugar, one-half cup butter, one-half cup sweet milk, one and one-half cups flour, whites of two eggs, one teaspoonful cream tartar, one-third teaspoonfnl soda; bake in shallow pan and cut in squares.
Mrs. E. J. Mendenhall. Fruit Cake.
One pound flour, one of sugar, three-fourths pound of butter, two pounds of raisins, two pounds of currants, one-half pound of citron, one cup molasses, one pound walnuts, one dozen eggs, teaspoon soda, one wineglass brandy, one ounce of extract of cloves.
Mrs. Herman Kenkel.
Fruit Cake.
Two scant teacups butter, three cups brown sugar, six eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately, one pound raisins seeded, one pound currants washed and dried, one-half pound citron cut in thin strips, one cupful good molasses, one cup sour milk. Stir the butter and sugar to a cream; add to that one-half grated nutmeg, one tablespoon of cinnamon, one teaspoonful of cloves, one of mace; add the molasses and milk; stir all well, then put in the beaten yolks; stir again and then add four cups of flour, alternately, with the beaten whites of eggs. Now dissolve one teaspoonful of soda and stir in thoroughly. Mix the fruit and stir into it two heaping tablespoonfuls of flour, then stir it into the cake; bake in two common sized baking tins; line them with letter paper, well buttered; bake in moderate oven two hours. This cake will keep for years if the cakebox is kept locked. Mrs. David Hunter.
Pound Cake.
One pound flour, one pound butter, one pound sugar, ten eggs, one tablespoon baking powder. Cream the butter and sugar; add a little flour, one egg, a little more flour, another egg, and so on, beating instead of stirring. Use about a tablespoon of flavoring—almond, lemon, vanilla, etc. Cover the dish with paper and leave on. It will keep the cake moist.
Mrs. Margaret G. High.
Spice Cake.
Three-fourths cup butter (small), two cups brown sugar, three and one-half cups flour, one cup cold water, two teaspoons baking powder, three eggs, two teaspoons cinnamon, one-half teaspoon cloves, one-half nutmeg, a little vanilla, a little salt, one large cup raisins and currants. Make two small or one large loaf.
Mrs. Richard H. Chute.
Spice Cake.
Two cups sugar, one cup molasses, one cup sour milk, one and one-half cups butter, five cups flour, five eggs, two tablespoonfuls cinnamon, two nutmegs, grated, one scant tablespoon of cloves, one pound raisins, one-half pound currants, one-half pound citron, one large teaspoonful soda. Mrs. Duganne. Pound Cake.
Twelve eggs, one pound granulated sugar, one pound butter, one pound sifted flour, one teaspoonful baking powder. Mix sugar and yolks together and cream with hands; mix the butter and flour and cream with the hands. Beat whites to a froth and add them to yolks and sugar; add all of this to the flour and butter; stir all thoroughly. To season: Vanilla and two tablespoonfuls brandy.
Miss Jessie KiUridge, Milwaukee, Wis.
Clove Cake.
One cup butter, two of sugar, one cup of milk, three cups of flour, four eggs, two teaspoonfuls cream tartar and one of soda, two teaspoonfuls of cloves.
Mrs. W. G. Byron.
Clove Cake.
One-half cup each sugar, molasses, sour milk, butter, two cups flour, one teaspoon soda, put half of soda into the molasses and half in the milk, yolks of three eggs one tablespoon cloves; bake in layers.
Mrs. D. D. Webster.
Coffee Cake.
One cup of cold strong coffee, one cup of sugar, onehalf cup butter, four cups of flour, three-fourths of a cup of raisins and the same of currants, two eggs, one cup of molasses, cinnamon, cloves, allspice and nutmeg to taste; add one small teaspoonful of soda dissolved in hot water. Mrs. Fau-cett. Dutch Apple Cake.
Two cups flour, two teaspoons baking powder, onefourth cup butter, one-half teaspoon salt, one cup milk two tablespoons sugar, one egg, four large apples. Mix dry materials; rub in butter; add beaten egg and then milk; cut apples in eighths and put on top; sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar; bake in hot oven until the cake is done and the apples soft. Very nice warm for lunch or tea. Mrs. W. R. Edwards, Milwaukee.
Caramel Cake.
Two eggs well beaten; add one-fourth cup sugar and beat again; one saltspoon salt, one and three-fourths cups flour into which you have sifted two teaspoons of baking powder four times, this fo be added alternately, one-half cup of milk (dissolve one and three-fourths cups burnt sugar in milk), three tablespoons of soft butter; this will make one large square tin. If you want to, add vanilla; add two tablespoons of water; bake in R moderately quick oven.
Mrs. Hiram W. Ross.
Cup Cake.
One cup butter, two cups sugar, three cups flour, four eggs, one cup milk, teaspoon baking powder, lemon and nutmeg for flavoring. This makes a good layer cake, or to put currants in, or for a cream layer cake.
Mrs. H. 'F. Brown.
Sunshine Cake.
Beat to a stiff froth the whites of eleven eggs; gradually add one and one-half cups of granulated sugar, measured after sifting, then the well beaten yolks of six eggs, one cup of flour, measured after sifting, with one teaspoon cream tartar; stir very lightly; flavor with erne teaspoon vanilla and bake fifty minutes. Do not grease pan. Mrs. L. E. Harknexs.
A ii gel Food.
One cup flour, one teaspoon cream tartar, whites of eleven eggs beaten very stiff, one and one-half cups pulverized sugar. Mrs. Guy K. Brink.
Sunshine Cake.
Make same as angel's food, using one teaspoon orange extract and adding beaten yolks of six eggs.
Annabel Brink.
Chinese Cakes.
Take the yolks of as many eggs as you wish to use, beat thoroughly, and for each yolk; add a tablespoonful of sugar and one of flour; flavor with vanilla or any extract you prefer and drop in hot patty pans well greased; bake quickly and frost if you choose. These are delicious. Contributed.
English Currant Cake.
Oue cupful butter, one cupful sugar, four eggs, one teaspoon baking powder, one pint flour, one and onehalf cupfuls currants washed and picked, one teespoonful cinnamon, one teaspoonfnl extract. Kub the butter and sugar to a white, light cream; add the eggs, one at a time, beating a few minutes between each; bake in a paper lined cake tin about fifty minutes in a moderate oven. . Mrs. A. O. Hubbard
Black Chocolate Cake.
One cup butter, two cups sugar, two and one-half cups flour, five eggs, one cup sour milk, one teaspoon soda in a little boiling water, one-half cake Baker's chocolate grated and put into the cake before stirring in the flour. Separate the eggs.
Mrs. Samuel Johnson.
Sponge Cake.
Yolks of six eggs beaten very light, one cup of sugar, four tablespoons cold water, one heaping cup flour, one teaspoon baking powder, small pinch salt, teaspoon yanilla, lastly the well beaten whites.
Mrs. Samuel Johnson.
Sponge Cake.
Six eggs, one-half teaspoonful cream tartar, a good pinch of salt, one cup powdered sugar, two thirds cup of flour. Beat whites of eggs until half beaten, then add cream tartar and salt; beat again until they will not fall from the plate when turned upside down; sift sugar five times and fold into whites; sift flour five times and fold into whites and sugar carefully; bake in slow oven one hour. Frosting—Two-thirds cup powdered sugar, moistened with two tablespoonfuls of boiling water; boil to a syrup; beat white of one egg, then add to it gradually the syrup.
Sponge Cake.
Three eggs, one and one-half cups powdered sugar, two of sifted flour, one teaspoon of baking powder, onehalf cup of cold water; flavor with lemon; bake in dripping pan or gem pan. I like the gem pan best.
Mrs. E. A. Eldred.
Sponge Cake.
Four eggs, one and one-half cups sugar, half cup of cold water, one cup flour, one teaspoon baking powder, pinch salt, flavoring. Beat eggs separately to a stiff froth; add sugar and beat; add water, salt and flavoring; sift baking powder in flour and beat all together thoroughly; bake in a moderately hot oven about forty minutes. Do not stir the pan while baking.
Mrs. C. C. Odell. Mountain Cake.
One cup of sugar, two eggs, one-half cup of butter, one-half cup sweet milk or water, two cups of flour, one teaspoon baking powder, a little nutmeg; bake in dripping pan or gem tins. Mrs. E. A. Eldred.
White Cake.
One cup sugar, one small tablespoon butter, one-half cup sweet milk, one-half cup cornstarch, whites of four eggs, one cup flour, two small teaspoons baking powder; flavor with lemon. Mrs. Mary Mooers.
Blueberry Cake.
One cup sugar, one-half cup butter, one-half cup milk, two and one-half cups flour, one and one-half teaspoons baking powder, one pint blueberries.
Mrs. A. B. Barton.
Blueberry Cake.
Three cups flour, one-half cup sugar, one cup milk, one egg, butter size of an egg, three teaspoons baking powder, one pint berries, floured before stirring into the cake, salt. To be eaten with butter. Fine for breakfast or lunch. Mrs. Richard H. Chute.
Hickory Nut Cake.
One cup of butter, two cups of sugar, three cups of flour, one cup. of sweet milk, one cup of hickory nuts chopped fine, whites of six eggs and yolks of three, two teaspoons baking powder. Mrs. A. D. Eads.
Geranium Leaf Cake.
One-half cup of butter, one cup of sugar, one-half cup of milk, two cups flour, two eggs, one teaspoon baking powder: rose geranium leaves spread over the bottom of tin before the mixture is put in. A delicious cake. Mrs. Margaret G. High.
Almond Cake.
One cup of butter, two cups of sugar, three cups of flour, one cup of milk, three teaspoonfuls baking powder, whites of ten eggs; bake in layers. Filling—One pound of almonds pulverized to a paste, three eggs; beat the yolks; add one cup of sugar, one cup of thick, sour cream, then the almonds. Beat the whites stiff, adding a tablespoon of sugar, then stir into the mixture atid add vanilla to taste. Mrs. Edw. Brooks.
Ribbon Cake.
Whites of six eggs, one and one-half cups powdered sugar, one-half cup of milk, two cups flour, sifted several times with one heaping teaspoon of baking powder. Take out a third or little more of the mixture and add to it half a cup of chopped raisins, a teaspoon of grated lemon rind, a teaspoon of cinnamon, one-half teaspoon of cloves, sprinkle of nutmeg and, if you have it, a piece of preserved ginger mashed fine; bakt, this in one layer and the white part in two layers, putting together with boiled icing, flavored with a little grated lemon rind; the fruit layer between the two white ones.
Mrs. B. D. Russell. Maple Cake.
Three eggs, one cup of white sugar, two tablespoons of sweet milk, one heaping cup of flour, two teaspoons of baking powder. Filling—Boil one cup of maple syrup to a wax and add the beaten white of one egg.
Mrs. Langley. Lemon Jelly Cake.
One and one-half cups of sugar, one-half cup of butter, one-half cup of milk, two and one-half cups of flour, three eggs, one teaspoon of baking powder. Filling— One cup of sugar, one egg, grated rind and juice of one lemon, one tablespoon of water, one teaspoon of flour: cook until as thick as jelly. Mrs. E. A. Eldred. Boll Jelly Cake.
Four eggs beaten fifteen minutes, one-half coffee cup sugar, three-fourths cup of flour, one teaspoon baking powder, one large cooking spoonful of water, a pinch of salt. Grease a large flat pan and bake quickly a very light brown; spread jelly on bottom of cake and roll up. Mrs. L. A. Reed.
Fig Cake.
Two level cups of sugar, three of sifted flour, one-half cup of butter, one of milk, two level teaspoons baking powder, one of vanilla and whites of six eggs. Stir butter and sugar to a cream; add flour and milk, first one and then the other in small quantities; then add baking powder, vanilla and eggs beaten to a stiff froth. For the filling: Beat whites of four eggs; add pulverized sugar until stiff, then three-fourths of a pound of figs chopped very fine; spread between layers when cake is cool. Mrs. Samuel Glover.
Fig Cake.
One cup sugar, one scant cup butter, one-half cup sweet milk, one cup flour, one-half cup cornstarch, one heaping teaspoon baking powder, whites of four eggs; bake in two shallow cake pans. Filling—Into boiled icing stir ten cents worth of chopped figs and one-half cup chopped hickory nuts. Mrs. T. E. Daniel.
Marshmallow Cake.
One cup sugar, one-fourth cup butter, one-half cup milk, one and one-half cups flour, two teaspoons baking powder, whites of three eggs, flavor with vanilla. Make a boiled frosting with two cups sugar, one cup of water; boil till it threads; take from fire and stir in whites of two eggs. Heat part of one-half pound of marshmallows by putting them in the oven for a minute and stir into the frosting while hot. Decorate the top of cake •with the rest of the marshmallows.
Mrs. Hiram W. Ross.
Miimehaha Cake.
One cup of butter, two of sugar, four eggs, one cup of sweet milk, three of flour, two large teaspoons of baking powder. Filling—One cup of walnut meats crushed fine, one cup of sour cream, two eggs, two tablespoons of pulverized sugar; a little chocolate may be added if desired. Mrs. I. J. Covey.

Monday, January 5, 2015


Here are some sandwich recipes that come from "Chafing Dish Recipes" ©1896

Sandwiches.—Stir the yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs with 2 ounces of butter to a cream, add 1 raw yolk, 1 tablespoonful lemon juice or tarragon vinegar, 12 fillets of canned anchovies, 1 teaspoonful English mustard, 2 tablespoonfuls fine-chopped pickles, 1 tablespoonful fine-chopped capers, the fine-chopped whites of the boiled eggs, 1/4 teaspoonful white pepper, 1 teaspoonful grated onion; when this is well mixed add 1 pound fine-minced boiled ham; spread 1 tablespoonful of this preparation over a thin slice of bread, cover with another slice; then cut the sandwiches even all around and in half diagonally; when they are all prepared in this way serve them on a folded napkin. If the sandwich preparation is not used all at once put it into a small jar; cover and keep in a cool place; it will keep for some time.
Chicken or Turkey Sandwiches.—Cut cold roasted chicken or turkey into fine slices, spread some thin slices of bread with a canape sauce; put 2 slices of bread together with a slice of chicken between, trim the sandwiches neatly, cut them into 3-cornered pieces and serve on a folded napkin; or spread the bread with butter, lay on the chicken, sprinkle over a little salt, and finish the same as above. Another way is to mix 2 tablespoonfuls butter with 1 tablespoonful French mustard, spread the slices of bread with the mustard butter, put a slice of roasted chicken, turkey, cold roasted veal, or boiled ham between 2 slices and finish the same as above; or another way is to put small pickles cut in half over the meat between the slices, or spread the bread with butter, put on the meat and a little French mustard over the meat.
Lettuce Sandwiches.—Spread some thin slices of bread with a canape sauce, put 2 and 2 slices together with 2 or 3 young lettuce leaves between; cut them even all around, then into 3-cornered pieces, and serve.
Lenten Sandwiches.—Chop fine 1 pickled beet, 3 small pickles, 1 tablespoonful fine-chopped capers, 2 hard-boiled eggs; mix all the ingredients together with 1/2 pint of mayonnaise; cut 12 thin slices of bread, spread a thin layer of the above preparation over each slice, dip some young lettuce leaves into mayonnaise, lay them over 6 slices of bread, and cover them with the other 6 slices; cut the sandwiches even all around, then cut into small triangles and serve.
Sandwiches a la Brigum.—Cut 12 thin slices of bread, mix 4 ounces of butter with 1 tablespoonful English mixed mustard, spread this over the slices of bread, lay on this butter some fine-chopped small pickles, dip some small lettuce leaves into a mayonnaise, lay them over the pickles, and lay over the lettuce leaves a thin slice of chicken meat, then some more lettuce leaves, mayonnaise, and fine-chopped hard-boiled eggs; cover with a slice of the buttered bread, trim them neatly, and cut them into triangles and arrange the sandwiches on a folded napkin.